The spread of HIV by exposure to infected blood usually results from sharing needles, as in those used for illicit drugs. HIV also can be spread by sharing needles for anabolic steroids to increase muscle, tattooing, and body piercing. To prevent the spread of HIV, as well as other diseases, including hepatitis, needles should never be shared. At the beginning of the HIV epidemic, many individuals acquired HIV infection from blood transfusions or blood products, such as those used for hemophiliacs. Currently, however, because blood is tested for both antibodies to HIV and the actual virus before transfusion, the risk of acquiring HIV from a blood transfusion in the United States is extremely small and is considered insignificant.
National Commission on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 1993. National Commission on AIDS: An Expanding Tragedy: The Final Report of the National Commission on AIDS. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Screening of blood donors with tests for both antibody to HIV and HIV RNA has minimized risk of transmission via transfusion. Current risk of transmitting HIV via blood transfusion is probably < 1/2,000,000 per unit transfused in the US. However, in many developing countries, where blood and blood products are not screened for HIV, the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV infection remains high.
In the absence of direct epidemiological evidence, molecular evolutionary studies of primate lentiviruses provide the most definitive information about the origins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–1 and HIV–2. Related lentiviruses have been found infecting numerous species of primates in sub–Saharan Africa. The only species naturally infected with viruses closely related to HIV–2 is the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) from western Africa, the region where HIV–2 is known to be endemic. Similarly, the only viruses very closely related to HIV–1 have been isolated from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and in particular those from western equatorial Africa, again coinciding with the region that appears to be the hearth of the HIV–1 pandemic. HIV–1 and HIV–2 have each arisen several times: in the case of HIV–1, the three groups (M, N and O) are the result of independent cross–species transmission events. Consistent with the phylogenetic position of a ‘fossil’ virus from 1959, molecular clock analyses using realistic models of HIV–1 sequence evolution place the last common ancestor of the M group prior to 1940, and several lines of evidence indicate that the jump from chimpanzees to humans occurred before then. Both the inferred geographical origin of HIV–1 and the timing of the cross–species transmission are inconsistent with the suggestion that oral polio vaccines, putatively contaminated with viruses from chimpanzees in eastern equatorial Africa in the late 1950s, could be responsible for the origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Production of the clotting factor concentrates, mainly to treat patients with haemophilia A and haemophilia B (Christmas disease), involves the pooling of very many donations and a single donation could contaminate a batch of concentrate used to treat many patients. There have been no recorded transmissions of HIV by this route in the UK since the introduction of heat inactivation of concentrates and donor screening in 1985.
Drug treatment guidelines for HIV/AIDS change frequently as new drugs are approved and new drug regimens developed. Two principles currently guide doctors in developing drug regimens for AIDS patients: using combinations of drugs rather than one medication alone; and basing treatment decisions on the results of the patient's viral load tests. Current information on United States Food and Drug Administration-(FDA)approved drugs by class can be found at the United States Department of Health and Human Services Aids Info Website at
Gulick RM. Antiretroviral therapy of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 388.
On the 15th Feb 2012, i lost a dear friend to the dreadful Illness called HIV. I strongly advise everyone, to use Protection when having Sex. Yes, my friend liked Men, and he has paid the price for his Sexual habit. He was only 34 years old, and very clever, but he didn’t think about taking precautions against HIV or AIDS. This information on this page by the MNT you are reading is very important to take in, and be guided by.
HIV is one of a group of viruses known as retroviruses. After getting into the body, the virus enters many different cells, incorporates its genes into the human DNA, and hijacks the cell to produce HIV virus. Most importantly, HIV attacks cells of the body’s immune system called CD4 or T-helper cells (T cells). These cells are destroyed by the infection. The body tries to keep up by making new T cells or trying to contain the virus, but eventually the HIV wins out and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers. The virus structure has been studied extensively, and this ongoing research has helped scientists develop new treatments for HIV/AIDS. Although all HIV viruses are similar, small variations or mutations in the genetic material of the virus create drug-resistant viruses. Larger variations in the viral genes are found in different viral subtypes. Currently, HIV-1 is the predominant subtype that causes HIV/AIDS. HIV-2, another form of HIV, occurs almost exclusively in West Africa.
This has been true of even the most recent advances. In 2010, the Obama administration unveiled the first National H.I.V./AIDS Strategy, an ambitious plan that prioritized government research and resources to so-called key populations, including black men and women, gay and bisexual men, transgender women and people living in the South. With a mandate to “follow the epidemic,” several pharmaceutical companies and philanthropic organizations also started projects to help gay black men, particularly in the Southern states. That same year, the Affordable Care Act and later the expansion of Medicaid in more than half of the country’s states linked significantly more H.I.V.-positive Americans to lifesaving treatment and care.
The second role of the federal government is largely symbolic but no less controversial. It is to guide school efforts through advice, sponsorship, and public speeches, and primarily involves the offices of the surgeon general and of the federal AIDS policy coordinator. Koop, who was a Reagan appointee, roused a fair degree of controversy, yet it was nothing compared to the upheaval that greeted statements by appointees of the Clinton administration. AIDS policy czar Kristine Gebbie and surgeon general M. Joycelyn Elders were forced from their posts after making statements that conservatives found appalling—Gebbie promoting attitudes toward pleasurable sex and Elders indicating a willingness to have schools talk about masturbation. Thereafter, the administration frequently stressed abstinence as its top priority for school AIDS programs.
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Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has affected people on a global basis. It has been shown that dietary fats may play a role in the parthenogenesis of the infection and disease progression. By examining the effects of saturated, unsaturated, and omega-3 fatty acids on HIV infection, it was found that HIV infection could be halted with the consumption of these dietary fats. The virus can be then further immobilized with prolonged antiretroviral therapy and clinical sessions. Dietary fats have the ability to reduce problems related to body composition and health in persons with HIV.
The growth of AIDS in Africa and Asia has raised worries about global political and economic stability. Governments in these ravaged countries have not been able to afford the anti-viral drugs. In 2002 pharmaceutical companies agreed to sell these drugs to these countries as generic drugs, dropping the cost from $12,000 to $300 a year per patient; yet even at these prices many governments would be hard pressed to purchase them.
Last year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, using the first comprehensive national estimates of lifetime risk of H.I.V. for several key populations, predicted that if current rates continue, one in two African-American gay and bisexual men will be infected with the virus. That compares with a lifetime risk of one in 99 for all Americans and one in 11 for white gay and bisexual men. To offer more perspective: Swaziland, a tiny African nation, has the world’s highest rate of H.I.V., at 28.8 percent of the population. If gay and bisexual African-American men made up a country, its rate would surpass that of this impoverished African nation — and all other nations.
While incidence of AIDS-defining cancers such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and cervical cancer have decreased since increase use of antiretroviral therapy, other cancers have increased in AIDS patients. People with HIV have shown an increased incidence of lung cancer, head and neck cancers, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, melanoma, and anorectal cancer.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS.
Russian T-LIMFOTROPNYI VIRUS III TIPA CHELOVECHESKII, INFEKTSII, VICH INFEKTSII, HTLV-III-LAV INFEKTSII, HTLV-III INFEKTSII, HTLV-III-LAV ИНФЕКЦИИ, HTLV-III ИНФЕКЦИИ, T-ЛИМФОТРОПНЫЙ ВИРУС III ТИПА ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКИЙ, ИНФЕКЦИИ, ВИЧ ИНФЕКЦИИ
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Jump up ^ Donald G. McNeil, Jr. (September 16, 2010). “Precursor to H.I.V. Was in Monkeys for Millennia”. New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-17. But P appears to have crossed over from a gorilla; it was discovered only last year, and in only one woman, who was from Cameroon, where lowland gorillas are hunted for meat.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are two variants of the HIV virus, HIV-1 and HIV-2, both of which ultimately cause AIDS.
Testing for HIV infection by anyone how suspects infection. If treated aggressively and early, the development of AIDS may be postponed. If HIV infection is confirmed, it is also vital to let past sexual partners know so that they can be tested and receive medical attention.
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Antibody tests in children younger than 18 months are typically inaccurate due to the continued presence of maternal antibodies. Thus HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR testing for HIV RNA or DNA, or via testing for the p24 antigen. Much of the world lacks access to reliable PCR testing and many places simply wait until either symptoms develop or child is old enough for accurate antibody testing. In sub-Saharan Africa as of 2007–2009 between 30 and 70% of the population were aware of their HIV status. In 2009, between 3.6 and 42% of men and women in Sub-Saharan countries were tested which represented a significant increase compared to previous years.
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The infections that occur with AIDS are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the opportunity to infect a weakened host. A person diagnosed with AIDS may need to be on antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent certain opportunistic infections from occurring. The infections include (but are not limited to) the following:
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Stanley TL, Falutz J, Marsolais C, et al. Reduction in visceral adiposity is associated with an improved metabolic profile in HIV-infected patients receiving tesamorelin. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun. 54(11):1642-51. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Jump up ^ Klot, Jennifer; Monica Kathina Juma (2011). HIV/AIDS, Gender, Human Security and Violence in Southern Africa. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa. p. 47. ISBN 0-7983-0253-4. Archived from the original on April 26, 2016.
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The primary mechanism for immunologic control of HIV appears to be CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. T-cell responses are correlated with the steady-state viral load and hence, the rate of progression.  Cellular immunity is apparently responsible for some multiply-exposed, but uninfected individuals. [64, 65]
In individuals not infected with HIV, the CD4 count in the blood is normally above 400 cells per mm3 of blood. People generally do not become at risk for HIV-specific complications until their CD4 cells are fewer than 200 cells per mm3. At this level of CD4 cells, the immune system does not function adequately and is considered severely suppressed. A declining number of CD4 cells means that HIV disease is advancing. Thus, a low CD4 cell count signals that the person is at risk for one of the many opportunistic infections that occur in individuals who are immunosuppressed. In addition, the actual CD4 cell count indicates which specific therapies should be initiated to prevent those infections. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]