Robb ML, Rerks-Ngarm S, Nitayaphan S, et al. Risk behaviour and time as covariates for efficacy of the HIV vaccine regimen ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E: a post-hoc analysis of the Thai phase 3 efficacy trial RV 144. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Jul. 12(7):531-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].
The earliest well-documented case of HIV in a human dates back to 1959 in the Congo. The earliest retrospectively described case of AIDS is believed to have been in Norway beginning in 1966. In July 1960, in the wake its independence, the United Nations recruited Francophone experts and technicians from all over the world to assist in filling administrative gaps left by Belgium, who did not leave behind an African elite to run the country. By 1962, Haitians made up the second largest group of well-educated experts (out of the 48 national groups recruited), that totaled around 4500 in the country. Dr. Jacques Pépin, a Quebecer author of The Origins of AIDS, stipulates that Haiti was one of HIV’s entry points to the United States and that one of them may have carried HIV back across the Atlantic in the 1960s. Although the virus may have been present in the United States as early as 1966, the vast majority of infections occurring outside sub-Saharan Africa (including the U.S.) can be traced back to a single unknown individual who became infected with HIV in Haiti and then brought the infection to the United States some time around 1969. The epidemic then rapidly spread among high-risk groups (initially, sexually promiscuous men who have sex with men). By 1978, the prevalence of HIV-1 among homosexual male residents of New York City and San Francisco was estimated at 5%, suggesting that several thousand individuals in the country had been infected.
Without treatment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will usually result in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, in Australia the HIV therapies introduced in the mid-1990s, which are available to all Australians living with HIV, have resulted in fewer AIDS related illnesses and deaths. Therefore, whilst a cure is yet to be found for HIV and it remains a lifelong infection, HIV in Australia is now considered a chronic manageable condition.
Antiviral medications are associated with adverse effects and thus contribute to patient morbidity and mortality rates, especially because of the growing population of long-term survivors who are receiving combination antiviral therapy. In particular, protease inhibitors may cause lipid-profile abnormalities.
AIDS-related symptoms also includes serious weight loss, brain tumors, and other health problems. Without treatment, these opportunistic infections can kill you. The official (technical) CDC definition of AIDS is available at http://www.thebody.com/content/art14002.html
HIV testing should be voluntary and the right to decline testing should be recognized. Mandatory or coerced testing by a health care provider, authority, or by a partner or family member is not acceptable as it undermines good public health practice and infringes on human rights.
People who already have a sexually transmitted infection, such as syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to acquire HIV infection during sex with an infected partner.
The Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly endorsed a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. The strategy includes 5 strategic directions that guide priority actions by countries and by WHO over the next six years.
Transmission of HIV requires contact with body fluids—specifically blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk, saliva, or exudates from wounds or skin and mucosal lesions—that contain free HIV virions or infected cells. Transmission is more likely with the high levels of virions that are typical during primary infection, even when such infections are asymptomatic. Transmission by saliva or droplets produced by coughing or sneezing, although conceivable, is extremely unlikely.
A course of antiretrovirals administered within 48 to 72 hours after exposure to HIV-positive blood or genital secretions is referred to as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). The use of the single agent zidovudine reduces the risk of a HIV infection five-fold following a needle-stick injury. As of 2013, the prevention regimen recommended in the United States consists of three medications—tenofovir, emtricitabine and raltegravir—as this may reduce the risk further.
Because of the inaccurate results, the FDA has not approved any of the home-use HIV tests which allow people to interpret their tests in a few minutes at home. There is however a Home Access test approved which can be found at most drugstores. In this test blood from a finger prick is placed on a card and sent to a licensed lab. Consumers are given an identification number to use when phoning for results and have the opportunity to speak with a counselor if desired.
CDC. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: Promoting Safe and Effective Use in the United States. CDC. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/Newsroom/PrEPforHIVFactSheet.html. Accessed: 11/29/2010.
^ Jump up to: a b Sodora DL, Allan JS, Apetrei C, Brenchley JM, Douek DC, Else JG, Estes JD, Hahn BH, Hirsch VM, Kaur A, Kirchhoff F, Muller-Trutwin M, Pandrea I, Schmitz JE, Silvestri G (2009). “Toward an AIDS vaccine: lessons from natural simian immunodeficiency virus infections of African nonhuman primate hosts”. Nature Medicine. 15 (8): 861–865. doi:10.1038/nm.2013. PMC 2782707 . PMID 19661993.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The disease alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens if the syndrome progresses.
HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission). There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood. It is possible to be co-infected by more than one strain of HIV—a condition known as HIV superinfection.
During late-stage HIV infection, the risk of developing a life-threatening illness is much greater. Serious conditions may be controlled, avoided, and/or treated with other medications, alongside HIV treatment.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. Rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.
The diagnosis for malaria is conducted by analyzing blood for malarial parasites. Prescription drugs can be used to cure individuals of malaria depending on the type of malarial infection, severity of infection, and other factors.
ART may have a variety of side effects depending on the type of drug. An expert in infectious diseases and HIV treatment should be consulted if the patient needs concomitant treatment for opportunistic infections, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. Some medications used to treat these conditions will negatively interact with ART drugs.
Early advances in preventing HIV transmission resulted from educational programs describing how transmission occurs and providing barrier protection for those exposed to genital secretions and new needles or bleach to those exposed to blood by sharing needles. Despite these efforts, new infection in both the developed and developing worlds has continued at high rates.
^ Jump up to: a b Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (2001). “Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa”. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 356 (1410): 911–20. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0867. PMC 1088484 . PMID 11405938.
CDC and other federal agencies are currently reviewing and updating their communications about the prevention effectiveness of HIV treatment and viral suppression to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. Read more on our Treatment as Prevention page.
Treatment with antiretroviral drugs is recommended for almost all people with HIV infection because without treatment, HIV infection can lead to serious complications and because newer, less toxic drugs have been developed. For most people, early treatment has the best results.
Importantly, many researchers have consistently shown that the primary risk factor for infection affects mortality. For example, the mortality rate among intravenous drug users tends to be higher, whether related to HIV disease or non-HIV disease.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as other infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with weight loss.
The total number of cases of HIV in the UK includes 120 cases from injecting drug use (IDU). IDU has played a smaller part in the HIV epidemic in the UK than it has in many other European countries and the numbers of new diagnoses have been around 100 for the last few years. In 2013, the prevalence in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in recent initiates to injectable drugs was 1.0%. This was similar to previous years, suggesting that this source of infection remained at relatively low levels.
Kaposi’s sarcoma. A tumor of the blood vessel walls, this cancer is rare in people not infected with HIV, but common in HIV-positive people. It usually appears as pink, red or purple lesions on the skin and mouth. In people with darker skin, the lesions may look dark brown or black. Kaposi’s sarcoma can also affect the internal organs, including the digestive tract and lungs. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]