A severe immunological disorder caused by the retrovirus HIV, resulting in a defect in cell-mediated immune response that is manifested by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and to certain rare cancers, especially Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is transmitted primarily by exposure to infected body fluids, especially blood and semen.
Other tests can detect antibodies in body fluids other than blood, such as saliva, urine, and vaginal secretions. Some of these are designed to be rapid HIV tests that produce results in approximately 20 minutes. These tests have accuracy rates similar to traditional blood tests. OraQuick is an at-home test that uses an oral swab to detect HIV antibodies in oral fluid. Clearview is another rapid HIV test that can detect HIV antibodies in blood or plasma. HIV home-testing kits are available at many local drugstores. Blood is obtained by a finger prick and blotted on a filter strip. Other test kits use saliva or urine. The filter strip is mailed in a protective envelope to a laboratory to be tested. Results are returned by mail within one to two weeks.
HIV attaches to and penetrates host T cells via CD4+ molecules and chemokine receptors (see Figure: Simplified HIV life cycle.). After attachment, HIV RNA and several HIV-encoded enzymes are released into the host cell.
Jump up ^ Jenny, Carole (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect: Diagnosis, Treatment and Evidence – Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4377-3621-2. Archived from the original on November 27, 2015.
Jump up ^ Stumptner-Cuvelette P, Morchoisne S, Dugast M, Le Gall S, Raposo G, Schwartz O, Benaroch P (October 2001). “HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (21): 12144–9. Bibcode:2001PNAS…9812144S. doi:10.1073/pnas.221256498. PMC 59782 . PMID 11593029.
A retrovirus of the subfamily lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The most common type of HIV is HIV-1, identified in 1984. HIV-2, first discovered in West Africa in 1986, causes a loss of immune function and the subsequent development of opportunistic infections identical to those associated with HIV-1 infections. The two types developed from separate strains of simian immunodeficiency virus. In the U.S., the number of those infected with HIV-2 is very small, but blood donations are screened for both types of HIV.
Turning things around would mean expanding testing and providing affordable treatment for those who are positive — to stop sickness and dying and also to block transmission of the virus. It would also require getting information and medication, including PrEP, to those most at risk. Even more challenging would be reducing the stigma, discrimination and shame that drive gay and bisexual men to hide their sexuality and avoid the health care system — and making sure providers have adequate resources and understand how to care H.I.V. patients.
You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:
The topic of religion and AIDS has become highly controversial in the past twenty years, primarily because some religious authorities have publicly declared their opposition to the use of condoms. The religious approach to prevent the spread of AIDS according to a report by American health expert Matthew Hanley titled The Catholic Church and the Global AIDS Crisis argues that cultural changes are needed including a re-emphasis on fidelity within marriage and sexual abstinence outside of it.
Frazer IH, Mackay IR, Crapper RM, et al. Immunological abnormalities in asymptomatic homosexual men: correlation with antibody to HTLV-III and sequential changes over two years. Q J Med. 1986 Oct. 61(234):921-33. [Medline].
hepatitis G virus (HGV) a parenterally transmitted flavivirus originally isolated from a patient with chronic hepatitis; most infections are benign, and it is uncertain what role, if any, HGV plays in the etiology of liver disease.
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HIV RNA tests can confirm positive results of an antibody test or detect evidence of HIV infection when antibody test results are negative. HIV RNA tests often use techniques to produce many copies of an organism’s genetic material (called nucleic acid amplification). These tests can detect very small amounts of HIV RNA in blood and are very accurate.
Definition (MSH) Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]