Jump up ^ Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Shey, Muki; Muula, Adamson S; Navti, Osric B; Akl, Elie A; Lo, Ying-Ru (June 15, 2011). Wiysonge, Charles Shey, ed. “Male circumcision for prevention of homosexual acquisition of HIV in men”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (6): CD007496. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007496.pub2. PMID 21678366.
Jump up ^ Gilbert PB, McKeague IW, Eisen G, Mullins C, Guéye-NDiaye A, Mboup S, Kanki PJ (February 28, 2003). “Comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infectivity from a prospective cohort study in Senegal”. Statistics in Medicine. 22 (4): 573–593. doi:10.1002/sim.1342. PMID 12590415.
Note: BFJHS is diagnosed in the presence of two major criteria, or one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria (adapted from Grahame R, Bird HA, Child A, Dolan AL, Fowler-Edwards A, Ferrell W, Gurley-Green S, Keer R, Mansi E, Murray K, Smith E. The British Society Special Interest Group on Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Criteria for the Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. “The Revised (Brighton 1998) Criteria for the Diagnosis of the BJHS”. Journal of Rheumatology 2000; 27:1777-1779).
Statistics show that approximately 40 million people are currently living with HIV infection, and an estimated 40 million have died from this disease since the beginning of the epidemic. HIV has been particularly devastating in sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for almost 70% of new HIV infections globally. However, infection rates in other countries also remain high.
Primary prophylaxis with clindamycin and pyrimethamine or trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (as for Pneumocystis pneumonia) indicated for patients with a CD4 count of < 100/μL and previous toxoplasmosis or positive antibodies; can be stopped if CD4 counts increase to > 200/μL for ≥ 3 mo in response to antiretroviral therapy
Other potential exposures include vaginal and anal sexual intercourse and sharing needles during intravenous drug use. There is less evidence for the role of antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after these exposures. In part, this is because the HIV status of a sexual partner or drug user is not usually known by the exposed person. Nevertheless, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends treatment for people exposed through sexual activity or injectable drug use to someone who is known to carry HIV. If the HIV status of the source is not known, the decision to treat is individualized. Concerned people should see their physician for advice. If a decision to treat is made, medications should be started within 72 hours of the exposure.
Jump up ^ Goodier, J.; Kazazian, H. (2008). “Retrotransposons Revisited: The Restraint and Rehabilitation of Parasites”. Cell. 135 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.022. PMID 18854152.(subscription required)
Human immunodeficiency virus uses chemokine receptors, mainly CXCR4 and CCR5, in conjunction with CD4 to infect healthy cells. The chemokine ligands to these receptors were found to block virus infection. Even though CCR4, the receptor for ABCD-1, is apparently not used by human immunodeficiency virus as coreceptor for infection, N-terminally processed human ABCD-1 showed human immunodeficiency virus suppressor activity independent of the viral phenotype (Pal et al., 1997; Struyf et al., 1998).
(See also the US Public Health Service and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents.)
AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. The initial cases were a cluster of injecting drug users and homosexual men with no known cause of impaired immunity who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was known to occur in people with very compromised immune systems. Soon thereafter, an unexpected number of homosexual men developed a previously rare skin cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). Many more cases of PCP and KS emerged, alerting U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a CDC task force was formed to monitor the outbreak.
Healthcare visits in the preceding year were associated with a lower rate of unawareness (37% vs 81%) but a higher rate of HIV-positivity (21% vs 12%). Because this study targeted a group and may involve participation bias, the overall rate of HIV infection (19%) cannot be easily extrapolated to the overall population. 
“Resistance occurs when the virus replicates in the presence of the drugs,” said Dr. Stephen Boswell, president and CEO of Boston’s Fenway Health, a healthcare organization that works with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. “Missed dosages lead to lower concentrations in the bloodstream and in the body, so the virus can become resistant and spread. So staying on your medications and not missing dosages is absolutely critical.”
The medical facts about HIV and AIDS are especially relevant to the law. Unless exposed in one of a few very specific ways, most people have nothing to fear. Casual contact with people who are infected is safe. Current medical knowledge is quite strong on this point: no one is known to have caught the virus by sitting next to, shaking the hand of, or breathing the same air as an infected person. For this reason, U.S. law has moved to protect the Civil Rights of HIV-positive and AIDS-symptomatic persons. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 794 (1994) prohibits discrimination against otherwise qualified disabled individuals, including individuals with a contagious disease or an infection such as HIV or AIDS. The AIDS quilt, on display in Washington, D.C., has become a well-known symbol of support for victims of AIDS and their families. Families and supporters of victims of AIDS create a panel to commemorate that person’s life and that panel is joined with others from around the country to create the quilt.
Jump up ^ Koch P, Lampe M, Godinez WJ, Müller B, Rohr K, Kräusslich HG, Lehmann MJ (2009). “Visualizing fusion of pseudotyped HIV-1 particles in real time by live cell microscopy”. Retrovirology. 6: 84. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-6-84. PMC 2762461 . PMID 19765276.
defective virus one that cannot be completely replicated or cannot form a protein coat; in some cases replication can proceed if missing gene functions are supplied by other viruses; see also helper virus.
The virus that causes AIDS, which is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. HIV is a retrovirus that occurs as two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both types are transmitted through direct contact with HIV-infected body fluids, such as blood, semen, and genital secretions, or from an HIV-infected mother to her child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding (through breast milk). [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]