Tuberculosis is diagnosed with the Mantoux test, in which a small sample of tuberculin is placed under the skin in an arm, and if a bump persists in the area, the individual may have TB. If the person is suspected positive for TB, the doctor may advise a chest x-ray and a mucous analysis as a follow-up. The treatment and prognosis vary for individuals who are TB infected and individuals who are experiencing symptoms of the TB disease. Various drugs therapies are used to treat both individuals. Tuberculosis can be cured if treated well. The best way to prevent TB is to treat and cure people who have it.
Jump up ^ Ogden J, Nyblade L (2005). “Common at its core: HIV-related stigma across contexts” (PDF). International Center for Research on Women. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2007. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
Walmsley S, Antela A, Clumeck N, et al. Dolutegravir (DTG; S/GSK1349572) + Abacavir/Lamivudine Once Daily Statistically Superior to Tenofovir/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz: 48-Week Results – SINGLE (ING114467). Abstract presented at: 52nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Sept 2012. Abstract H-556b:
defective virus one that cannot be completely replicated or cannot form a protein coat; in some cases replication can proceed if missing gene functions are supplied by other viruses; see also helper virus.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne, sexually transmissible virus (see the image below.) The virus is typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), which can occur during the birth process or during breastfeeding.
Mike McCune, the head of the Division of Experimental Medicine at U.C.S.F., researches ways in which H.I.V. can be eradicated by the body’s own immune system. He was prompted by an observation made in the early days of the epidemic: that babies born to mothers with H.I.V. become infected in utero only five to ten per cent of the time, even though they are exposed to the virus throughout gestation. Recently, McCune and his colleagues observed that the developing fetal immune system does not react against maternal cells, which can easily cross the placenta and end up in fetal tissues. Instead, the fetus generates specialized T cells that suppress inflammatory responses the mother, and that might also prevent inflammatory responses against H.I.V., thereby blocking the rapid spread of the virus in utero and sparing the child.
Drugs used to treat HIV infection were developed based on the life cycle of HIV. These drugs inhibit the three enzymes (reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease) that the virus uses to replicate or to attach to and enter cells.
Jump up ↑ Duesberg, P. H. (1988). “HIV is not the cause of AIDS”. Science 241 (4865): 514, 517. doi:10.1126/science.3399880. PMID 3399880.Cohen, J. (1994). “The Controversy over HIV and AIDS” (PDF). Science 266 (5191): 1642–1649. doi:10.1126/science.7992043. PMID 7992043. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
In contrast, when these strains infect species that have not adapted to SIV (“heterologous” or similar hosts such as rhesus or cynomologus macaques), the animals develop AIDS and the virus generates genetic diversity similar to what is seen in human HIV infection. Chimpanzee SIV (SIVcpz), the closest genetic relative of HIV-1, is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like symptoms in its natural host. SIVcpz appears to have been transmitted relatively recently to chimpanzee and human populations, so their hosts have not yet adapted to the virus. This virus has also lost a function of the Nef gene that is present in most SIVs. For non-pathogenic SIV variants, Nef suppresses T cell activation through the CD3 marker. Nef’s function in non-pathogenic forms of SIV is to downregulate expression of inflammatory cytokines, MHC-1, and signals that affect T cell trafficking. In HIV-1 and SIVcpz, Nef does not inhibit T-cell activation and it has lost this function. Without this function, T cell depletion is more likely, leading to immunodeficiency.
Having HIV does not always mean that you have AIDS. It can take many years for people with the virus to develop AIDS. HIV and AIDS cannot be cured. However with the medications available today, it is possible to have a normal lifespan with little or minimal interruption in quality of life. There are ways to help people stay healthy and live longer.
HIV infections in the United States continue to be a major public health crisis. An estimated 1.2 million Americans are living with HIV, and 1 out of 8 people with HIV do not know they have it.1 Although recent data show that annual HIV infections declined 18% in the U.S. from 2008 to 2014, HIV continues to spread.2
AIDS is caused by a virus called the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). If you get infected with HIV, your body will try to fight the infection. It will make “antibodies,” special immune molecules the body makes to fight HIV.
The transmission of HIV from an HIV-positive mother to her child during pregnancy, labour, delivery or breastfeeding is called vertical or mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In the absence of any interventions during these stages, rates of HIV transmission from mother-to-child can be between 15–=45%. MTCT can be nearly fully prevented if both the mother and the baby are provided with ARV drugs as early as possible in pregnancy and during the period of breastfeeding.
A Pakistani technician takes samples in a laboratory alongside a ribbon promoting World Aids Day in Islamabad on November 30, 2013. Researchers in the United States believe there may finally be an HIV vaccine within 10 years.
influenza virus any of a group of orthomyxoviruses that cause influenza; there are at least three serotypes or species (A, B, and C). Serotype A viruses are subject to major antigenic changes (antigenic shifts) as well as minor gradual antigenic changes (antigenic drift) and cause widespread epidemics and pandemics. Serotypes B and C are chiefly associated with sporadic epidemics. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]