In 2009, a newly analyzed HIV sequence was reported to have greater similarity to a simian immunodeficiency virus recently discovered in wild gorillas (SIVgor) than to SIVs from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). The virus had been isolated from a Cameroonian woman residing in France who was diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in 2004. The scientists reporting this sequence placed it in a proposed Group P “pending the identification of further human cases”.
Rapid test results usually will be available during the same clinical visit that the specimen (eg, blood or oral swab sample) is collected. Obstetrician–gynecologists who use these tests must be prepared to provide counseling to women who receive positive test results the same day that the specimen is collected. Women with positive test results should be counseled regarding the meaning of these preliminarily positive test results and the need for confirmatory testing (11). Obstetrician–gynecologists should develop collaborative care plans with health care professionals who can provide these counseling services on an emergent basis or train their own staff to handle the initial encounter and, thereafter, transition infected individuals to professionals who can serve as ongoing resources to them. Women whose confirmatory testing yields positive results and, therefore, are infected with HIV should receive or be referred for appropriate clinical and supportive care.
Jump up ^ Barbaro, G; Barbarini, G (December 2011). “Human immunodeficiency virus & cardiovascular risk”. The Indian journal of medical research. 134 (6): 898–903. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.92634. PMC 3284097 . PMID 22310821.
* Data include all participants with complete valid survey data who tested negative during NHBS and cycle-specific inclusion criteria: men who have sex with men (born male, identified as male, and had oral or anal sex with another man); persons who inject drugs (injected drugs in the past 12 months); heterosexual persons at increased risk (male or female [not transgender], had sex with a member of the opposite sex in the past 12 months, never injected drugs, and met low income [not exceeding U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines] or low education [high school education or less] criteria). Groups are mutually exclusive.
AIDS is one of the most devastating worldwide public health problems in recent history. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in 2006 944,000 people in the United States had been diagnosed with AIDS since the disease was identified in 1981. In 2006, an additional 1-1.2 million Americans were diagnosed as infected with HIV but not yet showing symptoms (HIV positive). However, in early 2009, the CDC issued a statement that they now thought that earlier the HIV-positive estimates were too low, as many more people than were originally estimated are living with unreported or undiagnosed HIV infection.
Antiretroviral treatment substantially reduces the risk that HIV will progress to AIDS. In developed countries, use of ART has turned HIV into a chronic disease that may never progress to AIDS. Conversely, if infected people are not able to take their medications or have a virus that has developed resistance to several medications, they are at increased risk for progression to AIDS. If AIDS is not treated, 50% of people will die within nine months of the diagnosis.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the greatest worldwide public health challenges of the last century. Since being identified over 20 years ago, HIV has claimed an estimated 25 million lives. Currently, an estimated 33 million individuals are living with HIV/AIDS. Although it causes infections worldwide, this virus has especially targeted areas of the developing world, with prevalence rates nearing 50% among women of child-bearing age in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Primary infection may be characterized by an acute viral syndrome or may be entirely asymptomatic, and individuals are often unaware of their infection. Symptomatic illness usually occurs several years after infection, and is manifested by significant-to-severe immune suppression. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is generally effective at suppressing viral replication, treatment is not universally available and is often associated with serious side effects. Also, due to the high rate of mutation during viral replication, ART may ineffective in noncompliant individuals. The structure, genetics, and replication characteristics of HIV make it a challenging pathogen. HIV is a remarkably diverse virus, with two major types, and multiple subtypes and recombinant forms circulating worldwide. The viral envelope varies considerably from isolate to isolate, and has few conserved regions that can be effectively targeted by host antibody responses. Glycosylation of protein structures on the envelope coating hinder access by neutralizing antibodies, and widespread mutational change within the genome permits escape from cellular immune mechanisms. HIV preferentially infects activated host immune cells, which are diverted from their normal cellular biosynthetic pathways to produce virus particles, and undergo premature apoptosis. However, infected CD41 T cells may also remain transcriptionally silent, leaving the incorporated proviral HIV genome dormant for many years. This results in a reservoir of infected cells that persists despite apparently effective therapy.The development of an HIV vaccine that is protective and easily and economically deliverable is a daunting endeavor for scientists, public health officials, and government agencies. The field of HIV vaccine development has met with a number of recent disappointments. Both the VAXGEN antibody-based vaccine and the Merck adenovirus T-cell-stimulating vaccine showed no efficacy in protecting from infection or reducing viral loads. In fact, the Merck product, tested in the Americas and South Africa, may have led to an increased susceptibility to HIV infection in individuals with evidence of preexisting serological immunity to the adenovirus vector.A new paradigm of HIV vaccine effectiveness may need to be considered. This paradigm includes vaccines that may: (1) prevent infection; (2) allow infection that is subsequently cleared without clinical disease; (3) delay clinical progression in the vaccinated individual; or (4) minimally impact disease in the infected individual, but reduce infection of others. Several new approaches are actively being tested in HIV vaccine development. DNA and peptide-based vaccines, heterologous prime-boost regimens, and alternative viral vector are under consideration and development. Scientists continue to use many different methodologies to optimize immunogenic HIV insert sequences in order to overcome the tremendous variability presented by potential infecting viruses. Other approaches seek to increase the recognition of viral antigens through the use of adjuvants and optimized modes of immunogen delivery. The next decade will provide opportunities for these hurdles to be overcome, and will likely see the emergence of new challenges as second- and third-generation vaccines are developed. Multidisciplinary approaches to vaccination may ultimately lead to complete control of this pandemic.
(Pathology) acquired immune (or immuno-)deficiency syndrome: a condition, caused by a virus, in which certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) are destroyed, resulting in loss of the body’s ability to protect itself against disease. AIDS is transmitted by sexual intercourse, through infected blood and blood products, and through the placenta
Viral recombination produces genetic variation that likely contributes to the evolution of resistance to anti-retroviral therapy. Recombination may also contribute, in principle, to overcoming the immune defenses of the host. Yet, for the adaptive advantages of genetic variation to be realized, the two viral genomes packaged in individual infecting virus particles need to have arisen from separate progenitor parental viruses of differing genetic constitution. It is unknown how often such mixed packaging occurs under natural conditions.
[Guideline] Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. October 17, 2017. [Full Text].
HIV is a lifelong infection, but it is treatable and can be controlled with medications. With consistent treatment using highly specialized antiviral medications, a person with HIV may live about as long as an uninfected person.
While incidence of AIDS-defining cancers such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and cervical cancer have decreased since increase use of antiretroviral therapy, other cancers have increased in AIDS patients. People with HIV have shown an increased incidence of lung cancer, head and neck cancers, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, melanoma, and anorectal cancer.
In January 1995, the settlement in a lawsuit brought by a Philadelphia construction worker with AIDS illustrated that the ADA could be used to fight caps on coverage. In 1992, the joint union-management fund for the Laborers’ District Council placed a $10,000 limit on AIDS benefits, in stark contrast to the $100,000 allowed for other catastrophic illnesses. At that time, the fund said the cap on AIDS benefits was designed to curb all health costs. In 1993, the EEOC ruled that the fund violated the ADA, and, backed by the AIDS Law Project of Philadelphia, the worker sued. Rather than fight an expensive lawsuit, the insurance fund settled: under the agreement, it extended coverage for all catastrophic illnesses to $100,000. Hailing the settlement as a major blow against widespread discrimination in insurance coverage, the law project’s executive director, Nan Feyler, told the Philadelphia Inquirer, “You can’t single out someone based on a stereotype.”
DO NOT use illegal drugs and do not share needles or syringes. Many communities have needle exchange programs, where you can get rid of used syringes and get new, sterile ones. Staff at these programs can also refer you for addiction treatment.
Pregnant women who are HIV-positive should seek care immediately from an obstetrician (OB). ART reduces the risk of transmitting the virus to the fetus, and the mother may be treated by both the OB and an infectious-disease subspecialist. Therapy can also be given during childbirth, or perinatal period, in order to help prevent HIV infection in the newborn. There are certain drugs, however, that are harmful to the baby. Therefore, seeing a physician as early as possible before or during pregnancy to discuss ART medications is crucial.
Without treatment, HIV infection starts to cause symptoms in an average of eight to 10 years with opportunistic illnesses, or diseases that only cause illness in people with impaired immune function. This symptomatic phase has been referred to as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV disease.
The infection rates in many developed countries remain stable, and some developing countries have achieved significant gains in controlling and even reversing the effects of the HIV epidemic. However, this is partially due to deaths in HIV-infected people, together with simultaneous prevention of new infections. India, for example, has used a national prevention campaign focusing on high-risk populations that may have prevented 100,000 new HIV infections over the 5 years it has been implemented, with increasing results seen in areas with higher levels of investment.  These figures together show that global HIV infection is in a state of flux.
Jump up ^ Baptista, M; Ramalho-Santos, J (November 1, 2009). “Spermicides, microbicides and antiviral agents: recent advances in the development of novel multi-functional compounds”. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. 9 (13): 1556–67. doi:10.2174/138955709790361548. PMID 20205637.
Jump up ^ Sharp PM, Bailes E, Chaudhuri RR, Rodenburg CM, Santiago MO, Hahn BH (2001). “The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 356 (1410): 867–76. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0863. PMC 1088480 . PMID 11405934.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it for life.
The AIDS Taskforce of Greater Cleveland provides a compassionate and collaborative response to the needs of people infected, affected and at risk of HIV/AIDS. This is accomplished through leadership in prevention, education, supportive services and advocacy.
Until recently, Justin Huff, a former Jackson State student, shared a room on the second floor of Grace House’s main facility. He was infected with H.I.V. a year and a half ago, when a man he met on Jack’d sexually assaulted him. He received his diagnosis just after his 21st-birthday celebration. “I was throwing up and couldn’t eat anything for a few days; I thought it was from the drinking,” Huff said. “When I went to the doctor, he was like, if I hadn’t made it in the next two days, I would’ve been dead.”
Poles MA, Boscardin WJ, Elliott J, et al. Lack of decay of HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue reservoirs in maximally suppressed individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Sep. 43(1):65-8. [Medline].
Needle sticks or body fluid splashes among health care professionals. Transmission through theses sources accounts for fewer than 0.3% of all HIV infections in the United States. This rate reflects the emphasis on universal safety precautions (e.g., use of gloves, face shields, proper disposal of needles) among health care professionals and first responders.
Sackoff et al found that between 1999 and 2004, the HIV-related mortality rate in New York City decreased each year by approximately 50 deaths per 10,000 people with AIDS. The rate of non–HIV-related deaths also showed a decline, more modest but consistent, with about 7.5 fewer deaths per 10,000 people with AIDS per year. 
Integrase inhibitors. Integrase inhibitors prevent the virus from inserting its own genetic material into the DNA of the infected cell. This stops the virus from replicating. Integrase was the only FDA-approved drug in this class as of early 2009. Several investigational drugs in this category were in clinical trials at that time.
Acute retroviral syndrome describes a group of symptoms that can resemble mononucleosis and that may be the first sign of HIV infection in 50-70% of all patients and 45-90% of women. Most patients are not recognized as HIV positive during this phase and may not seek medical attention. The symptoms are similar to those of many other diseases and may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, loss of appetite, digestive disturbances, weight loss, skin rashes, headache, and chronically swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Some patients will experience a form of meningitis during this phase in which the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Acute retroviral syndrome develops between one and six weeks after infection and lasts for two to three weeks. Blood tests during this period will indicate the presence of HIV virus (viremia) and the appearance of the viral p24 antigen in the blood.
Portuguese Infecção HIV NE, Síndrome HIV, Infecção a HIV NE, Doença a HIV, Infecções por Vírus Linfotrópico T Humano Tipo III, Infecção por HIV, Infecções por HIV, Infecções por HTLV-III, Infecções por HTLV-III-LAV [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]