There is currently no cure or effective HIV vaccine. Treatment consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) which slows progression of the disease. As of 2010 more than 6.6 million people were taking them in low and middle income countries. Treatment also includes preventive and active treatment of opportunistic infections.
Reactive arthritis is a chronic, systemic rheumatic disease characterized by three conditions, including conjunctivitis, joint inflammation, and genital, urinary, or gastrointestinal system inflammation. Inflammation leads to pain, swelling, warmth, redness, and stiffness of the joints. Non-joint areas may experience irritation and pain. Treatment for reactive arthritis depends on which area of the body is affected. Joint inflammation is treated with anti-inflammatory medications.
Since the first case was identified in 1981, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has grown into an epidemic that has taken approximately 500,000 lives in the United States alone. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS estimates that at the end of 2002 there were 42 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. During 2002, AIDS caused the deaths of an estimated 3.1 million people. At this time, women were increasingly affected by AIDS; it was estimated that women comprised approximately 50 percent or 19.2 million of the 38.6 million adults living with HIV or AIDS worldwide. No cure has been found, although existing treatment employing multiple drugs has made some gains in prolonging life and reducing pain. Despite the limits of medical science, however, much is known about the disease. It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Transmitted by bodily fluids from person to person, HIV invades certain key blood cells that are needed to fight off infections. HIV replicates, spreads, and destroys these host cells. When the body’s immune system becomes deficient, the person becomes AIDS-symptomatic, which means the person develops infections that the body can no longer ward off. Ultimately, a person with AIDS dies from diseases caused by other infections. The leading killer is a form of pneumonia.
§ Social-structural variables were used to identify a representative sample for NHBS of heterosexual persons at increased risk of HIV infection. Heterosexual persons at increased risk were defined as male or female (not transgender) in a metropolitan statistical area with high AIDS prevalence, who had sex with a member of the opposite sex in the past 12 months, never injected drugs, and met low income or low education criteria. Low income was defined as not exceeding U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines and low education as having a high school education or less.
AIDS is the later stage of HIV infection, when the body is losing T cells and its ability to fight infections. Once the CD4 cell count falls low enough (under 500 cells/mL), an infected person is said to have AIDS or HIV disease. Sometimes, the diagnosis of AIDS is made because the person has unusual infections or cancers that signal how weak the immune system is.
Stage III: Advanced symptoms which may include unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections including tuberculosis of the lung, and a CD4 count of less than 350/µl.
All too often, when people living with H.I.V. in Jackson lack the support of their families, community and the church, they end up in Grace House, a homeless facility on a sleepy block in the midtown section of the city. A cluster of four suburban-looking houses, Grace House originally functioned as a hospice, where the sick came to die. Now that the infected are living longer — and the numbers of gay and bisexual men with the virus continue to creep up — more and more young men are seeking shelter.
Enfuvirtide (T-20) is the only FDA-approved fusion inhibitor; it requires twice daily subcutaneous injections. Maraviroc (MVC) binds to and alters the structure of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, preventing it from being used as a coreceptor by HIV. Since some strains of HIV also can infect cells by using the CXCR4 chemokine receptor molecule as a coreceptor, MVC is ineffective in individuals who harbor CXCR4 tropic or dual tropic (using both CCR5 and CXCR4) virus.
Jump up ^ Holzammer S, Holznagel E, Kaul A, Kurth R, Norley S (2001). “High virus loads in naturally and experimentally SIVagm-infected African green monkeys”. Virology. 283 (2): 324–31. doi:10.1006/viro.2001.0870. PMID 11336557.
Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (also called nucleoside analogues). These drugs work by interfering with the action of HIV reverse transcriptase inside infected cells, thus ending the virus’s replication process. These drugs include zidovudine (Retrovir), lamivudine (Epivir), and abacavir (Ziagen) and many others. They are often used in used in multi-drug combinations.
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env-, Gag-, Pol-, Nef-, and Tat-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activities were quantitated temporally in five patients with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. A dominant CD8 (+)-mediated, major
A previous estimate¶ of diagnosis delays among persons who received a diagnosis of HIV infection in 2011 indicated that half had been infected for 3.6 years. The median diagnosis delay of 3.0 years among HIV diagnoses in 2015 reflects an absolute reduction of 0.6 years (7 months) and a relative reduction of 17%, representing a considerable decrease over a 4-year period (8). Earlier detection of HIV combined with prompt linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral treatment enhances preservation of immune function and, if viral suppression is achieved and maintained, reduces risk for sexual transmission of HIV (4). In addition, persons who know they have HIV infection substantially reduce their HIV-related risk behaviors: the prevalence of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse was found to be 53% lower among persons aware of their HIV status than among those who were unaware of their status (17).
CDC HIV surveillance statistics from 2015 report that 22.3% (8807 individuals) of new HIV infections in the United States are in adolescents and young adults aged 13 to 24 years. Males accounted for 82.8% of new HIV infections in youth. Of these, 7000 (57.4%) were in African Americans, 2390 (19.6%) in Hispanics, and 2380 (19.5%) in whites. Male-to-male sexual contact accounted for 72.1% (8800 individuals). The percentage of youths tested for HIV infection was 12.9% in high- school students and 34.5% in individuals aged 18-24 years. Testing was lower in males than females. More than half (59.5%) of youths with HIV are unaware of their infection. 
Needle sticks or body fluid splashes among health care professionals. Transmission through theses sources accounts for fewer than 0.3% of all HIV infections in the United States. This rate reflects the emphasis on universal safety precautions (e.g., use of gloves, face shields, proper disposal of needles) among health care professionals and first responders.
Jump up ^ Butsch, M.; Boris-Lawrie, K. (2002). “Destiny of Unspliced Retroviral RNA: Ribosome and/or Virion?”. Journal of Virology. 76 (7): 3089–94. doi:10.1128/JVI.76.7.3089-3094.2002. PMC 136024 . PMID 11884533.
^ Jump up to: a b Smith DK, Grohskopf LA, Black RJ, Auerbach JD, Veronese F, Struble KA, Cheever L, Johnson M, Paxton LA, Onorato IM, Greenberg AE (21 January 2005). “Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.”. MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 54 (RR-2): 1–20. PMID 15660015.
Recently, the CDC changed testing recommendations. All adults should be screened at least once. People who are considered high risk (needle drug users, multiple sex partners, for example) should be tested more often. All pregnant women should be tested. Anyone who has sustained a needle stick or significant blood exposure from a person known to have HIV or from an unknown source should be tested, too.
Adherence – HIV treatment is effective if medication is taken as prescribed. Missing even a few doses may jeopardize the treatment. A daily, methodical routine should be programmed to fit the treatment plan around the individual’s lifestyle and schedule. A treatment plan for one person may not be the same treatment plan for another. “Adherence” is sometimes known as “compliance”. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]