Most AIDS patients require complex long-term treatment with medications for infectious diseases. This treatment is often complicated by the development of resistance in the disease organisms. AIDS-related malignancies in the central nervous system are usually treated with radiation therapy. Cancers elsewhere in the body are treated with chemotherapy.
Taking HAART therapy is very manageable yet isn’t necessarily easy. These drugs must be taken at the right time, every single day. Also, a range of side effects may occur, including: diarrhea, nausea, rash, vivid dreams, or abnormal distribution of body fat. And, especially if medications are taken incorrectly or inconsistently, the virus can mutate, or change, into a strain resistant to treatment. The good news is that there are now several HIV medications that are only taken once a day. If there is resistant virus, however, these may not work and other medication options must be used.
It is important to remember that sometimes, for reasons not entirely understood, the viral load can briefly increase. Unexpected increases, therefore, necessitate repeated testing of the viral load before any clinical decisions are made. If, however, the viral load is continually detected despite proper adherence to the prescribed therapy, serious consideration must be given to the possibility that the virus has become resistant to one or more of the medications being given, especially if viral load is greater than 200 copies/mL. There is now an abundance of data showing that the use of drug-resistance tests can improve the response to a follow-up regimen. Testing can be used to determine if an individual’s HIV has become resistant to one or more of the drugs that are being taken. There are currently two main types of resistance tests available in the clinic: one that is called a genotype and the other a phenotype assay. The former looks for mutations in the virus and the latter the actual amount of drug it takes to block infection by the patient’s virus. The genotype test is very helpful in those being screened for the presence of resistant virus prior to initiating treatment and those experiencing viral rebound on one of their first treatment regimens. The phenotype test is particularly useful in those who are highly treatment experienced and have substantial amounts of drug resistance, especially to the protease class. The information derived from these tests, along with a tropism test will ultimately tell the provider which of the many approved drugs are likely to be fully active against the specific patient’s virus. Using this information, the goal is to include at least two and at times preferably three fully active drugs in the next regimen in order to optimize the chances of suppressing the viral load to undetectable levels. It is often useful to seek expert consultation in managing those with multidrug resistant virus.
Unlike cellular organisms, viruses do not contain all the biochemical mechanisms for their own replication; they replicate by using the biochemical mechanisms of a host cell to synthesize and assemble their separate components. (Some do contain or produce essential enzymes when there is no cellular enzyme that will serve.) When a complete virus particle (virion) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell.
Successfully treated patients may demonstrate intermittent low-level viremia (eg, < 400 copies/mL), but this is not thought to represent viral replication or to predict virologic failure (defined as a confirmed viral load of > 200 copies/mL 
Indianapolis based PanaMed Corporation announces today that the Company concluded Stage One of the first human treatment program for its immunomodulating therapeutic to treat patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Risk of HIV transmission after skin penetration with a medical instrument contaminated with infected blood is on average about 1/300 without postexposure antiretroviral prophylaxis. Immediate prophylaxis probably reduces risk to < 1/1500. Risk appears to be higher if the wound is deep or if blood is inoculated (eg, with a contaminated hollow-bore needle). Risk is also increased with hollow-bore needles and with punctures of arteries or veins compared with solid needles or other penetrating objects coated with blood because larger volumes of blood may be transferred. Thus, sharing needles that have entered the veins of other injection drug users is a very high risk activity. Jump up ^ Attia, Suzanna; Egger, Matthias; Müller, Monika; Zwahlen, Marcel; Low, Nicola (2009). "Sexual transmission of HIV according to viral load and antiretroviral therapy: Systematic review and meta-analysis". AIDS. 23 (11): 1397–404. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b7dca. PMID 19381076. Integrase inhibitors. Integrase inhibitors prevent the virus from inserting its own genetic material into the DNA of the infected cell. This stops the virus from replicating. Integrase was the only FDA-approved drug in this class as of early 2009. Several investigational drugs in this category were in clinical trials at that time. Disclaimer All MMWR HTML published before January 1993 are electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Sep 22. 55:1-17; quiz CE1-4. [Medline]. ABSTRACT: Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often is detected through prenatal and sexually transmitted disease testing, an obstetrician–gynecologist may be the first health professional to provide care for a woman infected with HIV. Universal testing with patient notification and right of refusal ("opt-out" testing) is recommended by most national organizations and federal agencies. Although opt-out and "opt-in" testing (but not mandatory testing) are both ethically acceptable, the former approach may identify more women who are eligible for therapy and may have public health advantages. It is unethical for an obstetrician–gynecologist to refuse to accept a patient or to refuse to continue providing health care for a patient solely because she is, or is thought to be, seropositive for HIV. Health care professionals who are infected with HIV should adhere to the fundamental professional obligation to avoid harm to patients. Physicians who believe that they have been at significant risk of being infected should be tested voluntarily for HIV. The prevalence of women with HIV in the United States is low compared to the rate in many countries in the developing world. Worldwide about half the people living with HIV are women. According to the United Nations, in 2005 about 59% of women living in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV. The vast majority of them were infected through sex with an infected male partner. Without treatment, your CD4 cell count will most likely go down. You might start having signs of HIV disease like fevers, night sweats, diarrhea, or swollen lymph nodes. If you have HIV disease, these problems will last more than a few days, and probably continue for several weeks. • Prior year testing increased over time among groups at high risk for HIV infection. However, 29% of MSM, 42% of persons who inject drugs, and 59% of heterosexual persons at increased risk did not report testing in the past 12 months. If HIV is left untreated, it may take up to 10 or 15 years for the immune system to be so severely damaged it can no longer defend itself at all. However, the speed HIV progresses will vary depending on age, health and background. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']