Jump up ^ Hallenberger S, Bosch V, Angliker H, Shaw E, Klenk HD, Garten W (November 26, 1992). “Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160”. Nature. 360 (6402): 358–61. Bibcode:1992Natur.360..358H. doi:10.1038/360358a0. PMID 1360148.
Jump up ^ Ogden J, Nyblade L (2005). “Common at its core: HIV-related stigma across contexts” (PDF). International Center for Research on Women. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2007. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
TB, or tuberculosis, is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can affect anyone at any age. The bacteria usually attacks the lungs. Particular groups of individuals, however, are shown to be at a higher risk of acquiring the disease than others. These include HIV/AIDS patients, individuals in close contact with TB patients, diabetics, individuals with suppressed immune systems, foreign-born individuals in countries with high TB incidences, healthcare workers, alcoholics, and others. Symptoms of the disease include a persistent cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, coughing blood, and sweating at night. When an infected individual coughs or sneezes, others nearby are at risk for breathing in the bacteria.
T-tropic strains of HIV-1, or syncytia-inducing (SI; now called X4 viruses) strains replicate in primary CD4+ T cells as well as in macrophages and use the α-chemokine receptor, CXCR4, for entry.
complex regional pain syndrome; CRPS; chronic regional pain syndrome neuroinflammatory dysfunction, due to ion interaction of nociceptive C-fibre nerve endings, the sympathetic nervous system and spinal cord efferent motor nerves; characterized by vasomotor instability, hyperalgesia and impaired motor function; diagnosed from clinical presentation, symptoms reduction on administration of sympathetic nerve blockade, and intense, focal periarticular uptake of contrast medium in a delayed imaging-phase bone scan; treated by early, aggressive physical therapy to prevent contracture and muscle wasting, symptomatic relief by sympathetic nerve blockade, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsant medication; immobilization is contraindicated
It is not known, however, why only some HIV-positive people develop these symptoms. It also is also not completely known whether or not having the symptoms is related in any way to the future course of HIV disease. Regardless, infected people will become symptom-free (asymptomatic) after this phase of primary infection. During the first weeks of infection when a patient may have symptoms of primary HIV infection, antibody testing may still be negative (the so-called window period). If there is suspicion of early infection based upon the types of symptoms present and a potential recent exposure, consideration should be given to having a test performed that specifically looks for the virus circulating in the blood, such as a viral load test or the use of an assay that identifies HIV p24 antigen, for example, the new fourth-generation antibody/antigen combination test. Identifying and diagnosing individuals with primary infection is important to assure early access into care and to counsel them regarding the risk of transmitting to others. The latter is particularly important since patients with primary HIV infection have very high levels of virus throughout their body and are likely to be highly infectious. There is no definitive data showing that initiation of antiretroviral therapy during this early stage of infection results in clinical benefits. Nevertheless, it is generally thought that the benefits of reducing the size of the HIV in the body, preserving select immune responses, and reducing transmissibility favors early treatment. Once the patient enters the asymptomatic phase, infected individuals will know whether or not they are infected if a test for HIV antibodies is done.
Much of the new AIDS research builds on the Silicianos’ foundational discovery of H.I.V.’s hidden reservoirs. So does their own work. Using potent chemicals, they have been able to draw H.I.V. out of its hiding places in memory T cells, assess the reach of the virus within the body, and begin to map where else it might be lodged.
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In patients with HIV infection, certain syndromes are common and may require different considerations (see Table: Common Manifestations of HIV Infection by Organ System). Some patients present with cancers (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, B-cell lymphomas) that occur more frequently, are unusually severe, or have unique features in patients with HIV infection (see Cancers Common in HIV-Infected Patients). In other patients, neurologic dysfunction may occur.
In 1983, two separate research groups led by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with and published their findings in the same issue of the journal Science. Gallo claimed that a virus his group had isolated from a person with AIDS was strikingly similar in shape to other human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) his group had been the first to isolate. Gallo’s group called their newly isolated virus HTLV-III. At the same time, Montagnier’s group isolated a virus from a person presenting with swelling of the lymph nodes of the neck and physical weakness, two characteristic symptoms of AIDS. Contradicting the report from Gallo’s group, Montagnier and his colleagues showed that core proteins of this virus were immunologically different from those of HTLV-I. Montagnier’s group named their isolated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV). As these two viruses turned out to be the same, in 1986, LAV and HTLV-III were renamed HIV.
A small proportion of individuals infected with HIV can survive more than 10 years without developing AIDS. It was suspected for many years that such individuals mount a more-vigorous immune response to the virus, but scientists could not explain why. Then, genetic variations known as single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, were identified in different HLA (human leukocyte antigen) genes, which code for molecules that stimulate the immune response. A variation in the HLA-G gene, for example, was identified in a subset of female prostitutes who had remained HIV-negative despite having had sexual contact with more than 500 HIV-positive men. Scientists identified additional SNPs that influenced viral load and disease progression in genes that code for HLA-B, HLA-C, and HCP5 (HLA complex P5), an inactive retrovirus first incorporated into the human genome millions of years ago that shares similarities in DNA sequence with HIV and is thought to interfere with viral replication.
In April 2011, he embarked on tour of his one-man show, “My Violent Torpedo of Truth/Defeat Is Not an Option.” The first show, in Detroit, went off the rails quickly. “Early in the evening, before the crowd turned sour, there was a creepy atmosphere that suggested group indoctrination into a cult,” said a Hollywood Reporter review. And that was before the booing and shouts of “You suck” started. He changed the style to a Q&A for the second show, but the tour never really caught fire.
Since the Bergalis case, many U.S. dentists, physicians, and surgeons with AIDS have begun disclosing their status to their patients. Faya v. Almaraz, 329 Md. 435, 620 A.2d 327 (Md. 1993), illustrates the consequences of not doing so. In Faya, the court held that an HIV-positive doctor has the legal duty to disclose this medical condition to patients and that a failure to inform can lead to a Negligence action, even if the patients have not been infected by the virus. The doctor’s patient did not contract HIV but did suffer emotionally from a fear of having done so. The unanimous decision held that patients can be compensated for their fears. Although this case dealt specifically with doctor-patient relationships, others have concerned a variety of relationships in which the fear of contracting AIDS can be enough for a plaintiff to recover damages.
It depends on if that person is on treatment and how the virus responds to early treatment. When treatment fails to decrease the replication of the virus, the effects can become life threatening, and the infection can progress to AIDS.
Entry (fusion) inhibitors prevent HIV from entering cells. To enter a human cell, HIV must bind to a CD4 receptor and one other receptor, such as the CCR-5 receptor. One type of entry inhibitor, CCR-5 inhibitors, blocks the CCR-5 receptor, preventing HIV from entering human cells.
Jump up ^ Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Shey, Muki; Muula, Adamson S; Navti, Osric B; Akl, Elie A; Lo, Ying-Ru (June 15, 2011). Wiysonge, Charles Shey, ed. “Male circumcision for prevention of homosexual acquisition of HIV in men”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (6): CD007496. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007496.pub2. PMID 21678366. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]