Many people with HIV do not know they are infected. In the United States, it is likely that 14% of HIV-positive individuals are unaware of their infection. HIV infection progresses in three very general stages.
Acronym for acquired immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) syndrome; disorder of the immune system characterized by opportunistic diseases, including candidiasis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes zoster, Kaposi sarcoma, toxoplasmosis, isosporiasis, cryptococcosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and tuberculosis. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, groups M and O, and HIV-2), which is transmitted in body fluids (notably breast milk, blood, and semen) through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles (by IV drug abusers), accidental needle sticks, contact with contaminated blood, or transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products. Hallmark of the immunodeficiency is depletion of T4+ or CD4+ helper/inducer lymphocytes, primarily the result of selective tropism of the virus for the lymphocytes.
Each side accuses the other of deepening the crisis. Comprehensive approach supporters think abstinence-only backers are moral censors, indifferent to pragmatic solutions. The liberal People for the American Way attacked “a growing wave of Censorship ravaging sexuality education” that promotes only “narrow” curricula. It mocked such abstinence-only programs as Teen Aid and Sex Respect, both of which have brought threats of legal action from the American Civil Liberties Union and Planned Parenthood. The conservative American Enterprise Institute asserted that liberal programs only prod students toward bad choices: “There has been a transition from protection to preparation.” Neither side can agree on any data, other than to point out that the problems of AIDS and teen sexuality have appeared to worsen.
By the late 1980s, much of the harshness in public debate had diminished. Both liberals and conservatives lined up to support legislative solutions. President ronald reagan left office, recommending increases in federal funding for medical research on AIDS. Already the amount spent in this area had risen from $61 million in 1984 to nearly $1.3 billion in 1988. President george h.w. bush took a more active approach, and in 1990 signed two new bills into law. One was the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act (Pub. L. No. 101-381, 104 Stat. 576), which provides much-needed money for states to spend on treatment. The other was the ground-breaking Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (42 U.S.C.A. §§ 12112–12117), which has proved to be the most effective weapon against the discrimination that individuals with the disease routinely suffer. Bush also hurried approval by the Food and Drug Administration for AIDS-related drugs. he supported Americans with the disease, Bush agreed to a controversial ban by Congress on travel and immigration to the United States for people with HIV.
During pregnancy or delivery or through breast-feeding. Infected mothers can pass the virus on to their babies. HIV-positive mothers who get treatment for the infection during pregnancy can significantly lower the risk to their babies.
Side effects differ from person to person. The most common are dizziness and headache. Serious side effects may include swelling of the mouth and tongue and liver damage. Drug interactions and drug resistance are also possible.
Urea and electrolytes: These are chemical compounds normally found in blood. Their levels are controlled by the renal system. This test is done to check on the condition of the kidneys. If the kidneys are functioning normally, then the levels of urea and creatinine will be normal. Otherwise the levels will be elevated.
It is not known, however, why only some HIV-positive people develop these symptoms. It also is also not completely known whether or not having the symptoms is related in any way to the future course of HIV disease. Regardless, infected people will become symptom-free (asymptomatic) after this phase of primary infection. During the first weeks of infection when a patient may have symptoms of primary HIV infection, antibody testing may still be negative (the so-called window period). If there is suspicion of early infection based upon the types of symptoms present and a potential recent exposure, consideration should be given to having a test performed that specifically looks for the virus circulating in the blood, such as a viral load test or the use of an assay that identifies HIV p24 antigen, for example, the new fourth-generation antibody/antigen combination test. Identifying and diagnosing individuals with primary infection is important to assure early access into care and to counsel them regarding the risk of transmitting to others. The latter is particularly important since patients with primary HIV infection have very high levels of virus throughout their body and are likely to be highly infectious. There is no definitive data showing that initiation of antiretroviral therapy during this early stage of infection results in clinical benefits. Nevertheless, it is generally thought that the benefits of reducing the size of the HIV in the body, preserving select immune responses, and reducing transmissibility favors early treatment. Once the patient enters the asymptomatic phase, infected individuals will know whether or not they are infected if a test for HIV antibodies is done.
Jump up ^ Underhill K, Operario D, Montgomery P (2008). Operario, Don, ed. “Abstinence-only programs for HIV infection prevention in high-income countries”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005421. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005421.pub2. PMID 17943855. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010.
Lambert-Niclot S, Tubiana R, Beaudoux C, et al. Detection of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma samples from treated patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma on a 2002-2011 survey. AIDS. 2012 May 15. 26(8):971-5. [Medline].
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) originated in Africa in the first half of the 20th century from the cross-species infection of humans by simian immunodeficiency viruses. HIV is most often transmitted during vaginal or anal sex, through blood, or perinatally from mother to child. HIV is a retrovirus that permanently integrates into the host genome of infected cells. Without antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection causes the gradual decline of CD4 T cells, eventually leading to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). People with AIDS are more likely to contract opportunistic infections and present with cancers caused by latent viruses. Worldwide, over 37 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, and 39 million people have died of the disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective at reducing virus replication and extending the lives of HIV-infected individuals. Despite scientific advancements and substantial efforts, no effective vaccine yet exists to prevent HIV infection.
DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. “Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1 Infected Adults and Adolescents.” Washington D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services, 2017.
Side effects of combinations of antiretroviral drugs may be unpleasant and serious. However, doctors can prevent many serious problems (such as anemia, hepatitis, kidney problems, and pancreatitis) by regularly examining the person and doing blood tests. The blood tests can detect side effects before they become serious and enable doctors to change antiretroviral drugs when needed. For most people, doctors can find a combination of drugs with minimal side effects.
^ Jump up to: a b Sousa, João Dinis de; Müller, Viktor; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke (2010). Martin, Darren P., ed. “High GUD Incidence in the Early 20th Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains”. PLoS ONE. 5 (4): e9936. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009936. PMC 2848574 . PMID 20376191. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014.
HIV is transmitted by the direct transfer of bodily fluids—such as blood and blood products, semen and other genital secretions, or breast milk—from an infected person to an uninfected person. The primary means of transmission worldwide is sexual contact with an infected individual. HIV frequently is spread among intravenous drug users who share needles or syringes. Prior to the development of screening procedures and heat-treating techniques that destroy HIV in blood products, transmission also occurred through contaminated blood products; many people with hemophilia contracted HIV in that way. Today the risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion is extremely small. In rare cases transmission to health care workers may occur as a result of an accidental stick by a needle that was used to obtain blood from an infected person.
Early treatment, even at the point of diagnosis, is now recommended in Australia. Regular assessment is important in monitoring the effects of HIV infection, and in monitoring the effect of therapy or the development of complications.
In this era of increasingly effective treatments for HIV, people with HIV are living longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Deaths from HIV infection have greatly declined in the United States since the 1990s. As the number of people living with HIV grows, it will be more important than ever to increase national HIV prevention and health care programs.
Jump up ^ National Institute of Health (June 17, 1998). “Crystal structure of key HIV protein reveals new prevention, treatment targets” (Press release). Archived from the original on February 19, 2006. Retrieved September 14, 2006.
WHO recommends PrEP as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of a combination of prevention approaches. WHO has also expanded these recommendations to HIV-negative women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Antibody tests in children younger than 18 months are typically inaccurate due to the continued presence of maternal antibodies. Thus HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR testing for HIV RNA or DNA, or via testing for the p24 antigen. Much of the world lacks access to reliable PCR testing and many places simply wait until either symptoms develop or the child is old enough for accurate antibody testing. In sub-Saharan Africa as of 2007–2009 between 30 and 70% of the population were aware of their HIV status. In 2009, between 3.6 and 42% of men and women in Sub-Saharan countries were tested which represented a significant increase compared to previous years. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]