HIV is a retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV attacks the immune system. This system consists of cells and organs that protect the body against diseases like infections and cancer. HIV attacks the immune system through special types of white blood cell known as CD4 cells. CD4 cells play an important role in orchestrating and controlling the functions of the whole immune system.
The stage of symptomatic infection, in which the body’s immune (or defense) system has been suppressed and complications have developed, is called the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The symptoms are caused by the complications of AIDS, which include one or more unusual infections or cancers, severe loss of weight, and intellectual deterioration (called dementia).
Jump up ^ Tang J, Kaslow RA (2003). “The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy”. AIDS. 17 (Suppl 4): S51–S60. doi:10.1097/00002030-200317004-00006. PMID 15080180.
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Rhabdomyolysis Causes Aseptic Meningitis Gastrointestinal Manifestations of HIV Polyarteritis Nodosa Preventive Health Care of Women Who Have Sex With Women Erythralgia Pruritus Causes Splenomegaly Lymphadenopathy Thrombocytopenia CD4 Cell Count HIV Related Rheumatologic Conditions Fever of Unknown Origin History Herpes Zoster Pneumonia Tuberculin Skin Test Headache Red Flag Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Health Care of the Homeless Niacin Deficiency Skin Infection Nonspecific Management of Pruritus Taste Dysfunction Loss of Smell Asplenic Trichomonal Vaginitis Viral skin infection in HIV Gynecologic Manifestations of HIV HIV Exposure Primary Series Bacterial Meningitis Management St. John’s Wort Major Depression Differential Diagnosis Polymyalgia Rheumatica Septic Joint Pediatric Anemia Causes Vaccines in Immunocompromised Patients Family Practice Notebook Updates 2016 Onychomycosis Addison’s Disease Neck Masses in Children Lymphadenopathy in HIV Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura HIV Related Neuropathy Typhoid Vaccine Yellow Fever Vaccine Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Genital Herpes Opioid Abuse Psychosis Psychosis Differential Diagnosis Antinuclear Antibody Proteinuria Causes Postexposure Prophylaxis Toxic Shock Syndrome Tetanus Psoriasis Anal Fissure Cytomegalovirus Mononucleosis-Like Syndrome Tuberculous Peritonitis Cesarean Section Methadone for Opioid Dependence Testicular Failure Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery Sulfonamide Allergy Acute Nonsuppurative Sialoadenitis Direct Bilirubin Primary Immunodeficiency Malaria Viral Meningitis Exchange Transfusion in Newborns Breast Feeding Suppurative Tenosynovitis Nephrotic Syndrome Fatigue Causes Osteoporosis Secondary to Medication Proctitis Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Preventive Health Care of Men Who Have Sex With Men Multidrug Resistance Score Systolic Dysfunction Pulmonary Hypertension Causes Necrotizing Otitis Externa Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Emerging Infection Atovaquone Parvovirus B19 Guillain Barre Syndrome Failure to Thrive Causes HIV Course Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcus Fever in the Returning Traveler Varicella Zoster Virus Vaccine Possibly Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment HIV Risk Factor Family Practice Notebook Updates 2014 Orthostatic Hypotension Hepatitis C Gluten Enteropathy Meningococcal Vaccine International Medical Concerns Isoniazid Herpes Ophthalmicus Multiple Sclerosis Substance Abuse Evaluation Methamphetamine Acute Glomerulonephritis AIDS-Defining Illness Pulmonary Hypertension Salivary Gland Enlargement HIV Risk Screening Questions Cholera Vaccine Influenza Vaccine Smallpox Vaccine Pentamidine Noisy Breathing Acute Kidney Injury Causes Wound Repair Chronic Paronychia Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Hives Thrush Dry Mouth Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Hodgkin Disease Brucellosis Candidiasis Viral Causes of Arthritis Lung Cancer Active Tuberculosis Treatment Paresthesia Causes Polymyositis Differential Diagnosis Reiter’s Syndrome Pre-participation History Proteinuria in Children HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Body Piercing Infectious Causes of Neutropenia Pneumococcal Vaccine Virus Tuberculosis Screening in Children Low Back Pain Red Flag Chronic Renal Failure Abdominal Pain Evaluation Transfusion Complication Sexually Transmitted Disease Latent Tuberculosis Treatment Dementia Increased Intracranial Pressure Causes Osteomyelitis Causes Zinc Osteoporosis Secondary Causes Exercising with Infection Epididymitis Menomune Cardiomyopathy HIV Complications Tuberculosis Risk Factors for progression from Latent to Active Disease Gynecomastia Erythema Multiforme Cryptosporidium parvum Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Aplastic Anemia HIV Presentation Anti-Retroviral Therapy Cutaneous Conditions in Febrile Returning Traveler Strongyloides Varicella Vaccine Tuberculosis Risk Factors Dementia Causes Refugee Health Exam Joint Pain Polyarticular Arthritis Abnormal Gait and Balance Causes in the Elderly Thrombocytopenia Causes Ataxia in Children
HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, or “pre-cum”), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been proven to transmit infection to others.
HIV provirus may lie dormant within a cell for a long time but when the cell becomes activated, it treats HIV genes in much the same way as human genes. First, it converts them into mRNAs using human enzymes. The mRNA is then transported outside the nucleus and is used as a blueprint for producing new HIV proteins and enzymes.
Sexual contact with an infected person, when the mucous membrane lining the mouth, vagina, penis, or rectum is exposed to body fluids such as semen or vaginal fluids that contain HIV, as occurs during unprotected sexual intercourse
CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2015. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report, vol. 22, no. 2. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-supplemental-report-vol-22-2.pdf
Public education: Education is effective and appears to have decreased rates of infection in some countries, notably Thailand and Uganda. Because sexual contact accounts for most cases, teaching people to avoid unsafe sex practices is the most relevant measure (see Table: HIV Transmission Risk for Several Sexual Activities).
Marazzi MC, Palombi L, Nielsen-Saines K, et al. Extended antenatal use of triple antiretroviral therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 correlates with favorable pregnancy outcomes. AIDS. 2011 Aug 24. 25(13):1611-8. [Medline].
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Palella FJ Jr, Baker RK, Moorman AC, et al. Mortality in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: changing causes of death and disease in the HIV outpatient study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Sep. 43(1):27-34. [Medline]. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]