Untreated HIV destroys certain cells within the immune system (CD4+ or helper T cells) from the time of infection onwards, causing more and more damage. Eventually the damage to the immune system is so great the body can no longer stop some infections or cancers it normally fights successfully. Infections not usually seen in healthy people, called opportunistic infections, and certain unusual tumours such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, may occur. Women with untreated HIV infection are at increased risk of developing cervical cancer and both men and women are at increased risk of anal cancer. Untreated HIV can cause infection in the brain, which can lead to nervous system disorders or dementia in some people with HIV infection.
From the time of infection by HIV, AIDS normally develops within ten years, though there are now drugs which may be used to extend this time. The immune failure, which is characteristic of AIDS, occurs as a consequence of a gradual decline in the number of CD4 T lymphocytes. Eventually the infected person succumbs to a variety of infections by BACTERIA, FUNGI, protozoa or viruses and/or develops a cancer(s) such as Kaposi’s Sarcoma.
AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection. Because the CD4 cells in the immune system have been largely destroyed, people with AIDS often develop symptoms and signs of unusual infections or cancers. When a person with HIV infection gets one of these infections or cancers, it is referred to as an “AIDS-defining condition.” Examples of AIDS-defining conditions are listed in Table 1. Significant, unexplained weight loss also is an AIDS-defining condition. Because common conditions like cancer or other viral conditions like infectious mononucleosis also can cause weight loss and fatigue, it is sometimes easy for a physician to overlook the possibility of HIV/AIDS. It is possible for people without AIDS to get some of these conditions, especially the more common infections like tuberculosis.
HIV treatments (antiretrovirals) are available and all people with HIV infection in Australia have access to this treatment. Available HIV treatments have dramatically improved the outlook for people with HIV.
If the CD4 count is low, people are more likely to develop serious infections and other complications of HIV such as certain cancers. Viral load helps predict how fast the CD4 count is likely to decrease over the next few years.
Early diagnosis of HIV infection is important because it enables doctors to identify people with HIV infection before their CD4 cell count decreases too much. The sooner people start taking antiretroviral drugs, the more quickly their CD4 count is likely to increase and the higher the count is likely to become.
This expensive test isn’t used for general screening. It’s for people who have early symptoms of HIV or recently had a high-risk exposure. This test doesn’t look antibodies, but for the virus itself. It takes from seven to 28 days for HIV to be detectable in the blood. This test is usually accompanied by an antibody test.
Statistics show that approximately 40 million people are currently living with HIV infection, and an estimated 40 million have died from this disease since the beginning of the epidemic. HIV has been particularly devastating in sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for almost 70% of new HIV infections globally. However, infection rates in other countries also remain high.
In 2016, WHO released the second edition of the Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. These guidelines recommend to provide lifelong ART to all people living with HIV, including children, adolescents and adults, pregnant and breastfeeding women, regardless of clinical status or CD4 cell count. By July 2017, 122 countries already have adopted this recommendation by mid-2017, which covers more than 90% of all PLHIV globally.
Jump up ^ Butsch, M.; Boris-Lawrie, K. (2002). “Destiny of Unspliced Retroviral RNA: Ribosome and/or Virion?”. Journal of Virology. 76 (7): 3089–94. doi:10.1128/JVI.76.7.3089-3094.2002. PMC 136024 . PMID 11884533.
Some conspiracy theories have been put about. Operation INFEKTION was a worldwide Soviet active measures operation to spread the claim that the United States had created HIV/AIDS. Surveys show that a significant number of people believed – and continue to believe – in such claims.
[Guideline] Günthard HF, Aberg JA, Eron JJ, for the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2014 Jul 23-30. 312(4):410-25. [Medline]. [Full Text].
The risk of transmitting the virus to others is higher when the viral load (the amount of HIV in the blood) is higher, in particular in early infection (when a person may not even be aware he or she has HIV) and late in untreated infection (when the immune system is failing). Research demonstrates that having a consistently low (undetectable) viral load dramatically reduces infectiousness and that together with consistent condom use and/or safe injecting practices, lowers the risk of transmission to almost zero. However certain factors, including poor treatment adherence or the presence of other STIs can increase the risk of transmission.
Masiá M, Padilla S, Alvarez D, et al. Risk, predictors, and mortality associated with non-AIDS events in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients: role of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2013 Jan 14. 27(2):181-9. [Medline].
Antiviral medications are associated with adverse effects and thus contribute to patient morbidity and mortality rates, especially because of the growing population of long-term survivors who are receiving combination antiviral therapy. In particular, protease inhibitors may cause lipid-profile abnormalities.
PIs block the action of an HIV enzyme called protease that allows HIV to produce infectious copies of itself within HIV-infected human cells. Thus, blocking protease prevents HIV in already-infected cells from producing HIV that can infect other, not yet infected cells.
Aaron Glatt, MD Professor of Clinical Medicine, New York Medical College; President and CEO, Former Chief Medical Officer, Departments of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, St Joseph Hospital (formerly New Island Hospital)
Jump up ^ Charles B. Hicks, MD (2001). Jacques W. A. J. Reeders & Philip Charles Goodman, ed. Radiology of AIDS. Berlin [u.a.]: Springer. p. 19. ISBN 978-3-540-66510-6. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016.
Cellular: Cell-mediated immunity is a more important means of controlling the high levels of viremia (usually over 106 copies/mL) at first. But rapid mutation of viral antigens that are targeted by lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity subvert control of HIV in all but a small percentage of patients.
The mortality rate in some countries has greatly increased. In South Africa (a country that, despite having a relatively late-onset HIV epidemic, has developed one of the highest prevalence rates), the all-cause HIV-associated mortality rate increased by 79% between 1997 and 2004. In women aged 25-34 years, mortality rates increased by 500% during this period. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]