The basic subunit of any living organism; the simplest unit capable of independent life. Although there are some single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, most organisms consist of many cells that are specialized for particular functions.
Humoral: Antibodies to HIV are usually measurable within a few weeks after primary infection; however, antibodies cannot fully control HIV infection because mutated forms of HIV that are not controlled by the patient’s current anti-HIV antibodies are generated.
In the US in 2015, > 1.1 million people aged ≥ 13 yr were estimated to be living with HIV infection; HIV was undiagnosed in about 15% of them. About 50,000 new cases are estimated to occur each year in the US. Overall, the number of new cases decreased by 19% from 2005 to 2014. In 2016, 39,782 cases were diagnosed. Over two thirds (67% or 26,570) of new infections occurred in gay and bisexual men. Among gay and bisexual men, the number of new infections was 10,223 in black/African American men, 7,425 in Hispanic/Latino men, and 7,390 in white men (2).
Jump up ^ Lyumkis, Dmitry; Julien, Jean-Philippe; de Val, Natalia; Cupo, Albert; Potter, Clinton S.; Klasse, Per-Johan; Burton, Dennis R.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P. (2013-12-20). “Cryo-EM structure of a fully glycosylated soluble cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer”. Science. 342 (6165): 1484–1490. doi:10.1126/science.1245627. ISSN 1095-9203. PMC 3954647 . PMID 24179160.
Stein-Leventhal syndrome; polycystic ovary syndrome multiple ovarian cyst formation, with associated menstrual abnormalities, infertility, enlarged ovaries, insulin resistance, obesity, acne, evidence of masculinization (e.g. hirsuitism) and increased tendency to type 2 diabetes mellitus; responds to treatment with oral contraceptive pill and/or metformin
DiNenno EA, Prejean J, Irwin K, et al. Recommendations for HIV screening of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men—United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:830–2. CrossRef PubMed
A type of white blood cell. T-lymphocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T cell and thymocyte.
Older PIs no longer commonly used due to pill burden and side effects include lopinavir and ritonavir combination (Kaletra), saquinavir (Invirase), indinavir sulphate (Crixivan), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), tipranavir (Aptivus), and nelfinavir (Viracept).
Jump up ^ Karlsson A, Parsmyr K, Aperia K, Sandström E, Fenyö EM, Albert J (1994). “MT-2 cell tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates as a marker for response to treatment and development of drug resistance”. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 170 (6): doi:10.1093/infdis/170.6.1367. PMID 7995974.
A blood test for HIV looks for these antibodies. If you have them in your blood, it means that you have HIV infection. People who have the HIV antibodies are called “HIV-Positive.” Fact Sheet 102 has more information on HIV testing.
Proteins are important for your immunity. Not enough protein in your diet can weaken your immune system. Your body also produces proteins when you sleep that help your body fight infection. For this reason, lack of sleep reduces your immune defenses. Cancers and chemotherapy drugs can also reduce your immunity.
HIV produces cellular immune deficiency characterized by the depletion of helper T lymphocytes (CD4+ cells). The loss of CD4+ cells results in the development of opportunistic infections and neoplastic processes.
Jump up ^ Walker, BD (Aug–Sep 2007). “Elite control of HIV Infection: implications for vaccines and treatment”. Topics in HIV medicine : a publication of the International AIDS Society, USA. 15 (4): 134–6. PMID 17720999. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]