Spanish Síndrome del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, Enfermedad por VIH, Infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, no especificada, Infección por VIH NEOM, infección por HTLV – III/LAV – RETIRADO -, infección por virus linfotrópico de células T humano, tipo III / virus asociado a linfoadenopatía, [X]enfermedad por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), sin otra especificación, infección por virus linfotrópico de células T humano, tipo III / virus asociado a linfadenopatía, [X]enfermedad por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (trastorno), [X]enfermedad por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), sin otra especificación (trastorno), [X]enfermedad por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, infección por HTLV – III/LAV – RETIRADO – (concepto no activo), [X]enfermedad por HIV, [X]enfermedad por VIH, infección por HIV, infección por VIH, infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (trastorno), infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, Infección por VIH, Infecciones del Virus Tipo III T-Linfotrópico Humano, Infecciones por HTLV-III, Infecciones por VIH, Infecciones por HTLV-III-LAV
Most of the lock-step mobilization efforts focused on preventing the disease in black women, who, for the most part, were contracting the virus through sex with male partners. Though the C.D.C. and other agencies offered plenty of alarming statistics confirming the high and growing numbers of H.I.V. cases and deaths among black women, there was a lack of empirical evidence to clearly explain why the rates were so high. Experts in academia and government researchers tried to unravel a knotted tangle of factors: Women were contracting the virus from bisexual men; higher rates of sexually transmitted infections among black women facilitated the spread of H.I.V.; socioeconomic issues drove up the rates of all disease. The lack of research to create a coherent explanation was further confounded by a reluctance on the part of some scientists and activists to perpetuate the dangerous myth of black women as sexually promiscuous — another holdover from slavery.
After generic drug manufacturers, such as Cipla in India, began producing discounted, generic forms of HIV medicines for developing countries, several major pharmaceutical manufacturers agreed to further reduce drug prices.
Jump up ^ Choopanya, Kachit; Martin, Michael; Suntharasamai, Pravan; Sangkum, Udomsak; Mock, Philip A; Leethochawalit, Manoj; Chiamwongpaet, Sithisat; Kitisin, Praphan; Natrujirote, Pitinan; Kittimunkong, Somyot; Chuachoowong, Rutt; Gvetadze, Roman J; McNicholl, Janet M; Paxton, Lynn A; Curlin, Marcel E; Hendrix, Craig W; Vanichseni, Suphak (June 1, 2013). “Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial”. The Lancet. 381 (9883): 2083–2090. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61127-7. PMID 23769234.
Given the confusion, it was simplest to latch onto the most provocative idea: that black gay men, who we knew were also contracting H.I.V. in high numbers, provided a “bridge to infection” to black heterosexual women, a phrase I first heard from researchers at a medical conference. As the theory went, closeted black gay men were using women as unsuspecting “cover girls” to hide their sexuality and then infecting them with H.I.V. In my reporting for both The Times and Essence, I found no shortage of anecdotal accounts of H.I.V.-positive women who were infected by male partners who had been having sex with other men in secret. As a black lesbian myself, I understood the stigma, shame and fear that could drive black gay men to create seemingly straight lives while sleeping with men — and end up unwittingly infecting their female partners with H.I.V. This idea made a certain amount of sense in the frustrating absence of scientific data.
Latent toxoplasmosis: This asymptomatic condition is indicated by serum antibodies (IgG) to Toxoplasma gondii. TMP/SMX (in doses used to prevent P. jirovecii pneumonia) is used to prevent reactivation and consequent toxoplasmic encephalitis. Latent infection is less common (about 15% of adults) in the US than in Europe and most developing countries (up to 70 to 80% of adults).
Since the Bergalis case, many U.S. dentists, physicians, and surgeons with AIDS have begun disclosing their status to their patients. Faya v. Almaraz, 329 Md. 435, 620 A.2d 327 (Md. 1993), illustrates the consequences of not doing so. In Faya, the court held that an HIV-positive doctor has the legal duty to disclose this medical condition to patients and that a failure to inform can lead to a Negligence action, even if the patients have not been infected by the virus. The doctor’s patient did not contract HIV but did suffer emotionally from a fear of having done so. The unanimous decision held that patients can be compensated for their fears. Although this case dealt specifically with doctor-patient relationships, others have concerned a variety of relationships in which the fear of contracting AIDS can be enough for a plaintiff to recover damages.
Marks G, Crepaz N, Senterfitt JW, Janssen RS. Meta-analysis of high-risk sexual behavior in persons aware and unaware they are infected with HIV in the United States: implications for HIV prevention programs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;39:446–53. CrossRef PubMed
The HIV virion enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell.
Wernicke’s syndrome; Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome; Wernicke’s encephalopathy brainstem ischaemia causing nystagmus and other ocular effects, tremors and ataxia, mental confusion, hypothermia and hypotension; more common in chronic alcoholics
Lie on a bench on the affected side with the affected leg in line with the body and the hip and knee locked; flex the unaffected (upper) leg; place the hands on the bench immediately under the shoulder and push the trunk upwards as far as possible to apply stretch to the lateral area of the affected leg
Anti-LGBTQ bias further enables the spread of HIV by discouraging many in our community from getting tested or treated for HIV for fear of harassment. A 2014 Kaiser Family Foundation survey of gay and bisexual men in the U.S. found that 15% of them had received poor treatment from a medical professional as a result of their sexual orientation, and least 30% did not feel comfortable discussing their sexual behaviors with a healthcare provider. For gay and bisexual youth who are just beginning to explore their sexuality, homophobia and other forms of anti-LGBTQ bias help explain why so many young people in our community are unaware of their HIV status.
^ Jump up to: a b c Schneider, E; Whitmore, S; Glynn, KM; Dominguez, K; Mitsch, A; McKenna, MT; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC) (December 5, 2008). “Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008". MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control. 57 (RR–10): 1–12. PMID 19052530. Jump up ^ Sharp PM, Bailes E, Chaudhuri RR, Rodenburg CM, Santiago MO, Hahn BH (2001). "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 356 (1410): 867–76. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0863. PMC 1088480 . PMID 11405934. The history of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dates back to 1981, when gay men with symptoms and signs of a disease that now are considered typical of AIDS were first described in Los Angeles and New York. The men had an unusual type of lung infection (pneumonia) called Pneumocystis carinii (now known as Pneumocystis jiroveci) pneumonia (PCP) and rare skin tumors called Kaposi's sarcomas. The patients were noted to have a severe reduction in a type of cell in the blood (CD4 cells) that is an important part of the immune system. These cells, often referred to as T cells, help the body fight infections. Shortly thereafter, this disease was recognized throughout the United States, Western Europe, and Africa. In 1983, researchers in the United States and France described the virus that causes AIDS, now known as HIV, belonging to the group of viruses called retroviruses. While HIV infection is required to develop AIDS, the actual definition of AIDS is the development of a low CD4 cell count (<200 cells/mm3) or any one of a long list of complications of HIV infection ranging from a variety of so-called "opportunistic infections," cancers, neurologic symptoms, and wasting syndromes. The O ("Outlier") group is not usually seen outside of West-central Africa. It is reportedly most common in Cameroon, where a 1997 survey found that about 2% of HIV-positive samples were from Group O. The group caused some concern because it could not be detected by early versions of the HIV-1 test kits. More advanced HIV tests have now been developed to detect both Group O and Group N. HIV drugs (antiretroviral drugs), usually three or more taken together, can stop HIV from reproducing, strengthen the immune system, and thus make people less susceptible to infection, but the drugs cannot, with rare exceptions, eliminate HIV, which persists in an form. No effective cure currently exists for HIV. But with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. If taken the right way, every day, ART can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV, keep them healthy, and greatly lower their chance of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid-1990s, people with HIV could progress to AIDS (the last stage of HIV infection) in a few years. Today, someone diagnosed with HIV and treated before the disease is far advanced can live nearly as long as someone who does not have HIV. As the number of people living with HIV increases and more people become aware of their HIV status, prevention strategies that are targeted specifically toward HIV-infected people are becoming more important. Prevention work with people living with HIV focuses on: Sheen rose to the top again with "Two and a Half Man," playing free-spirited jingle writer Charlie Harper. The show was one of the highest-rated on television, and Sheen soon became the highest-paid actor on TV, eventually making close to $2 million an episode. But a rehab stint shut down production in 2010, and he and show creator Chuck Lorre were soon at loggerheads. Sheen was fired after the eighth season. Medications are also used to prevent opportunistic infections (such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) and can keep AIDS patients healthier for longer periods of time. Opportunistic infections are treated as they occur. As the infection progressively weakens the immune system, an individual can develop other signs and symptoms, such as swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, fever, diarrhoea and cough. Without treatment, they could also develop severe illnesses such as tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, severe bacterial infections and cancers such as lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma, among others. Condomless sex - having sex without a condom can put a person at risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV can be transmitted by having sex without a condom (vaginal, oral, and/or anal sex). It can also be transmitted by sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV. Condoms should be used with every sexual act. Jump up ^ Mabuka J, Nduati R, Odem-Davis K, Peterson D, Overbaugh J (2012). Desrosiers RC, ed. "HIV-Specific Antibodies Capable of ADCC Are Common in Breastmilk and Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Transmission in Women with High Viral Loads". PLOS Pathogens. 8 (6): e1002739. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002739. PMC 3375288 . PMID 22719248. ^ Jump up to: a b Bonhoeffer S, Chappey C, Parkin NT, Whitcomb JM, Petropoulos CJ (2004). "Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1". Science. 306 (5701): 1547–50. Bibcode:2004Sci...306.1547B. doi:10.1126/science.1101786. PMID 15567861. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']