Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T cells. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T cells are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers.
^ Jump up to: a b Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (2001). “Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 356 (1410): 911–20. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0867. PMC 1088484 . PMID 11405938. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 17, 2013.
Reported AIDS cases may be separated into groups based on these risk factors: homosexual or bisexual males–75%, intravenous drug abusers with no history of male homosexual activity–13%, Haitians with neither a history of homosexuality nor a history of intravenous drug abuse–6%, persons with hemophilia A who were not Haitians, homosexuals, or intravenous drug abusers–0.3%, and persons in none of the other groups–5%. Reported by the Task Force on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, CDC
A disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and transmitted by sexual contact or by blood spread on infected needles and other implements. AIDS is not a specifically homosexual disorder. Rather it is a disease of sexually promiscuous populations that harbour large numbers of HIV. The virus attacks a particular group of white cells of the immune system (helper T lymphocytes) causing a severe reduction in the ability of the body to resist infection and certain forms of cancer. The resulting recurrent infections, often with organisms not normally causing disease (opportunistic infectors), can usually be treated, but, to date, no wholly effective treatment for the underlying HIV infection has been developed. Combinations of drugs, including protease inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors and DNA polymerase inhibitors, can, however, greatly prolong life and have virtually converted AIDS from an inevitably fatal, to a potentially serious chronic disease. The condition may involve many different disorders including a form of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii , CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections, widespread herpes simplex infections, widespread thrush (CANDIDIASIS), KAPOSI’S SARCOMA and other malignancies, and brain damage from direct infection of neurons by HIV. The presence of the AIDS virus can be detected by the ELISA and other tests.
After infection with HIV, it can take from 3 weeks to 6 months for the virus to show up in testing. Re-testing may be necessary. If the moment an individual was most at risk of infection was within the last 6 months, they can have the test immediately. However, the provider will urge that another test is carried out within a few weeks.
HIV is a chronic medical condition that can be treated, but not yet cured. There are effective means of preventing complications and delaying, but not preventing, progression to AIDS. At the present time, not all persons infected with HIV have progressed to AIDS, but time has shown that the vast majority do.
Linda Villarosa is the director of the journalism program at the City College of New York Harlem and an assistant professor of media and communication arts. She is a former New York Times science editor and Essence magazine executive editor.
Jump up ^ Campbell GR, Pasquier E, Watkins J, et al. (2004). “The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis”. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197–48204. doi:10.1074/jbc.M406195200. PMID 15331610.
Within weeks of infection, many people will develop the varied symptoms of primary or acute infection, which typically has been described as a mononucleosis- or influenza-like illness but can range from minimal fever, aches, and pains to very severe symptoms. The most common symptoms of primary HIV infection are
Among these three strategies, the opt-out approach is now recommended by most national organizations and federal agencies. For prenatal HIV testing, universal testing with patient notification and right of refusal was recommended by the Institute of Medicine to address clinicians’ concerns that pretest counseling and informed consent mandates for routine voluntary testing in pregnancy were too time consuming and, thus, reduced the likelihood of testing being offered (9). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) endorse this approach (10, 11). Evidence suggests that this strategy may be acceptable to many pregnant women (12, 13). “To expand the gains made in diagnosing HIV infection among pregnant women,” the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (14) has recently released, and ACOG (15) has adopted, recommendations to make HIV testing a “routine part of medical care” using a similar opt-out approach for all women at the time of routine health care visits.
Most (95%) new infections occur in the developing world. Almost 70% of new HIV infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than half occurring in women and 1 in 10 occurring in children under 15 years old. However, in many sub-Saharan African countries, the number of new HIV infections decreased by 41% between 2000 and 2014., partly because of international efforts to provide treatment and strategies for prevention.
HIV is one of a group of viruses known as retroviruses. After getting into the body, the virus enters many different cells, incorporates its genes into the human DNA, and hijacks the cell to produce HIV virus. Most importantly, HIV attacks cells of the body’s immune system called CD4 or T-helper cells (T cells). These cells are destroyed by the infection. The body tries to keep up by making new T cells or trying to contain the virus, but eventually the HIV wins out and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers. The virus structure has been studied extensively, and this ongoing research has helped scientists develop new treatments for HIV/AIDS. Although all HIV viruses are similar, small variations or mutations in the genetic material of the virus create drug-resistant viruses. Larger variations in the viral genes are found in different viral subtypes. Currently, HIV-1 is the predominant subtype that causes HIV/AIDS. HIV-2, another form of HIV, occurs almost exclusively in West Africa.
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Black America, however, never got a Pepfar. Though the raw numbers were much lower than in Africa, parts of our country looked like the continent the program was created to save. Yet while buckets of money went overseas, domestic funding for H.I.V./AIDS remained flat, and efforts to fight the disease here were reduced to a poorly coordinated patchwork affair. “When we saw that the epidemic was out of proportion in the black community, we started calling for a domestic Pepfar that would bring new resources to the effort, create clear and ambitious objectives and rebuild health care infrastructure around the country,” Lee said. “But we just couldn’t get the administration to focus on a domestic plan.”
Editorial Note: CDC defines a case of AIDS as a disease, at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease. Such diseases include KS, PCP, and serious OOI.((S)) Diagnoses are considered to fit the case definition only if based on sufficiently reliable methods (generally histology or culture). However, this case definition may not include the full spectrum of AIDS manifestations, which may range from absence of symptoms (despite laboratory evidence of immune deficiency) to non-specific symptoms (e.g., fever, weight loss, generalized, persistent lymphadenopathy) (4) to specific diseases that are insufficiently predictive of cellular immunodeficiency to be included in incidence monitoring (e.g., tuberculosis, oral candidiasis, herpes zoster) to malignant neoplasms that cause, as well as result from, immunodeficiency((P)) (5). Conversely, some patients who are considered AIDS cases on the basis of diseases only moderately predictive of cellular immunodeficiency may not actually be immunodeficient and may not be part of the current epidemic. Absence of a reliable, inexpensive, widely available test for AIDS, however, may make the working case definition the best currently available for incidence monitoring.
There is less information on the effectiveness of PEP for people exposed via sexual activity or intravenous drug use — however, if you believe you have been exposed, you should discuss the possibility with a knowledgeable specialist (check local AIDS organizations for the latest information) as soon as possible. All rape victims should be offered PEP and should consider its potential risks and benefits in their particular case.
Jump up ^ Jenny, Carole (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect: Diagnosis, Treatment and Evidence – Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4377-3621-2. Archived from the original on November 27, 2015.
In April 1984, the National Cancer Institute announced they had found the cause of AIDS, the retrovirus HTLV-III. In a joint conference with the Pasteur Institute they announced that LAV and HTLV-III are identical and the likely cause of AIDS.22 A blood test was created to screen for the virus with the hope that a vaccine would be developed in two years.23
Jump up ^ McCray, Eugene; Mermin, Jonathan (September 27, 2017). “Dear Colleague: September 27, 2017”. Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
Koopman G, Haaksma AG, ten Velden J, Hack CE, Heeney JL. The relative resistance of HIV type 1-infected chimpanzees to AIDS correlates with the maintenance of follicular architecture and the absence of infiltration by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Mar 1. 15(4):365-73. [Medline]. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]