Jump up ^ Gilbert, PB; et al. (February 28, 2003). “Comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infectivity from a prospective cohort study in Senegal”. Statistics in Medicine. 22 (4): 573–593. doi:10.1002/sim.1342. PMID 12590415.
Jump up ^ Holzammer S, Holznagel E, Kaul A, Kurth R, Norley S (2001). “High virus loads in naturally and experimentally SIVagm-infected African green monkeys”. Virology. 283 (2): 324–31. doi:10.1006/viro.2001.0870. PMID 11336557.
Jump up ^ Patel VL, Yoskowitz NA, Kaufman DR, Shortliffe EH (2008). “Discerning patterns of human immunodeficiency virus risk in healthy young adults”. Am J Med. 121 (4): 758–764. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.04.022. PMC 2597652 . PMID 18724961.
Protease is an enzyme that HIV needs to replicate. As the name suggests, protease inhibitors bind to the enzyme and inhibit its action, preventing HIV from making copies of itself. These include atazanavir/cobicistat (Evotaz), lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), and darunavir/cobicistat (Prezcobix).
vaccinia virus a species of orthopoxvirus that does not occur in nature and has been propagated for many years only in the laboratory for use as an active vaccine against smallpox. The present virus is derived from the original one used by Jenner, obtained from the lesions of cowpox, but the origin of the original virus remains unclear.
^ Jump up to: a b Boily MC, Baggaley RF, Wang L, Masse B, White RG, Hayes RJ, Alary M (February 2009). “Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 9 (2): 118–29. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70021-0. PMID 19179227.
In June 2001, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly called for the creation of a “global fund” to support efforts by countries and organisations to combat the spread of HIV through prevention, treatment and care including buying medication.73
The HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into DNA, which is compatible to human genetic material, when the virus is inside the cell. This DNA is transported to the cell’s nucleus, where it is spliced into human DNA by the HIV enzyme integrase. The HIV DNA is known as provirus after it is integrated.
Puhan MA, Van Natta ML, Palella FJ, Addessi A, Meinert C. Excess mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: temporal changes and risk factors. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15. 51(8):947-56. [Medline]. [Full Text].
HIV progressively destroys some types of white blood cells called CD4+ lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help defend the body against foreign cells, infectious organisms, and cancer. Thus, when HIV destroys CD4+ lymphocytes, people become susceptible to attack by many other infectious organisms. Many of the complications of HIV infection, including death, usually result from these other infections and not from HIV infection directly.
Advances in Treatment Though the search for an AIDS vaccine has consumed many researchers, by 2003 no breakthroughs had appeared. However, other researchers have concentrated on ways of controlling AIDS through drug treatment regimens that require individuals to consume many different types of medications at the same time. These anti-AIDS “cocktails” undergo constant study and modification as researchers learn more about the working of HIV. The medications are from a family of drugs called protease inhibitors.
Consider the drug Truvada. The drug emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada) can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection in people at very high risk. You need to take it every day. It doesn’t prevent other STIs, so you’ll still need to practice safe sex. If you have hepatitis B you should be evaluated by an infectious disease or liver specialist before beginning therapy. You will need a blood test to check your kidney function before taking this drug.
A family history of primary immunodeficiency is the strongest predictor of a disorder. At birth and for only a few months, babies are partially protected from infections by antibodies transmitted to them by their mothers. Typically, the earlier the age at onset of signs of an immunodeficiency in children, the more severe the disorder. Testing can be done within the first few months, but it is also important to recognize the early signs: recurrent infections and failure to thrive. Initial laboratory screening should include a complete blood count with differential and measurement of serum immunoglobulin and complement levels.
Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (also called nucleoside analogues). These drugs work by interfering with the action of HIV reverse transcriptase inside infected cells, thus ending virus’s replication process. These drugs include zidovudine (Retrovir), lamivudine (Epivir), and abacavir (Ziagen) and many others. They are often used in used in multi-drug combinations.
In the developed world, HIV infection is much more common in males. In 2015, males accounted for 81% of all diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents in the United States.  Among heterosexuals, females are more likely to acquire HIV infection from an infected male than a male is from an infected female, but a large proportion of infections in males are due to homosexual contact, with or without injection drug use. Males are also more likely to acquire HIV infection from injection drug use alone.
A small group of individuals continue to dispute the connection between HIV and AIDS, the existence of HIV itself, or the validity of HIV testing and treatment methods. These claims, known as AIDS denialism, have been examined and rejected by the scientific community. However, they have had a significant political impact, particularly in South Africa, where the government’s official embrace of AIDS denialism (1999–2005) was responsible for its ineffective response to that country’s AIDS epidemic, and has been blamed for hundreds of thousands of avoidable deaths and HIV infections.
The goal is to start PEP as soon after exposure as possible if prophylaxis is warranted. CDC recommends providing PEP within 24 to 36 h after exposure; a longer interval after exposure requires the advice of an expert.
Sequencing revealed that variation occurs throughout the HIV genome but is especially pronounced in the gene encoding the gp120 protein. By constantly changing the structure of its predominant surface protein, the virus can avoid recognition by antibodies produced by the immune system. Sequencing also has provided useful insight into genetic factors that influence viral activity. Knowledge of such factors is expected to contribute to the development of new drugs for the treatment of AIDS.
Jump up ^ Gao, F.; Bailes, E.; Robertson, D.L.; et al. (February 1999). “Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes”. Nature. 397 (6718): 436–41. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..436G. doi:10.1038/17130. PMID 9989410.
There is evidence that humans who participate in bushmeat activities, either as hunters or as bushmeat vendors, commonly acquire SIV. However, SIV is a weak virus, and it is typically suppressed by the human immune system within weeks of infection. It is thought that several transmissions of the virus from individual to individual in quick succession are necessary to allow it enough time to mutate into HIV. Furthermore, due to its relatively low person-to-person transmission rate, it can only spread throughout the population in the presence of one or more high-risk transmission channels, which are thought to have been absent in Africa prior to the 20th century.
After the first symptoms disappear, most people, even without treatment, have no symptoms or only occasionally have a few mild symptoms. This interval of few or no symptoms may last from 2 to 15 years. The symptoms that most commonly occur during this interval include the following:
Jump up ^ Goodier, J.; Kazazian, H. (2008). “Retrotransposons Revisited: The Restraint and Rehabilitation of Parasites”. Cell. 135 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.022. PMID 18854152.(subscription required)
As mentioned above, with regards to GALT, HIV infection may be compartmentalized; specifically, areas of immune-privilege may occur such as in the testes and central nervous system where not only will there be differences in HIV pseudospecies but also different degrees of antiretroviral drug penetration. There is evidence that even with good peripheral control of HIV, the virus may still be detectable in the CSF and semen of some infected patients. [56, 57]
Jump up ^ Sharp PM, Bailes E, Chaudhuri RR, Rodenburg CM, Santiago MO, Hahn BH (2001). “The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 356 (1410): 867–76. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0863. PMC 1088480 . PMID 11405934.
Cesarean delivery may be recommended for HIV-positive women. This also helps reduce the risk of transmission of the virus to the baby, especially when the mother receives medications. HIV may also be transmitted through breast milk. Because breast milk contains the virus, HIV-positive mothers should not breastfeed their babies.
It is unethical for an obstetrician–gynecologist to refuse to accept a patient or to refuse to continue providing health care for a patient solely because she is, or is thought to be, seropositive for HIV. Refusing to provide care to women who are infected with HIV for fear of contracting HIV infection or simply as a practice preference is unreasonable, unscientific, and unethical.
Within 2 to 4 weeks after infection with HIV, people may experience a flu-like illness, which may last for a few weeks. This is the body’s natural response to infection. When people have acute HIV infection, they have a large amount of virus in their blood and are very contagious. But people with acute infection are often unaware that they’re infected because they may not feel sick right away or at all. To know whether someone has acute infection, either a fourth-generation antibody/antigen test or a nucleic acid (NAT) test is necessary. If you think you have been exposed to HIV through sex or drug use and you have flu-like symptoms, seek medical care and ask for a test to diagnose acute infection.
You can’t get HIV by shaking hands or hugging a person who has HIV. You also can’t get HIV from contact with objects such as dishes, toilet seats, or doorknobs used by a person with HIV. HIV does not spread through the air or through mosquito, tick, or other insect bites.
Jump up ↑ “Statement of interpretation of the Holy See on the adoption of the declaration of commitment on HIV/AIDS”. Holy See. Wednesday, 27 June 2001. Retrieved 1/19/2011. Check date values in: |access-date=, |date= (help) [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]