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Tokyo, Japan, June 20, 2006 – (JCN) – Takara Bio announced on June 19 that it has reached an agreement with the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC) to collaborate in research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Programs encouraging sexual abstinence do not appear to affect subsequent HIV risk.[124] Evidence of any benefit from peer education is equally poor.[125] Comprehensive sexual education provided at school may decrease high risk behavior.[126][127] A substantial minority of young people continues to engage in high-risk practices despite knowing about HIV/AIDS, underestimating their own risk of becoming infected with HIV.[128] Voluntary counseling and testing people for HIV does not affect risky behavior in those who test negative but does increase condom use in those who test positive.[129] It is not known whether treating other sexually transmitted infections is effective in preventing HIV.[59]

Mania Secondary Causes Dysthymic Disorder Pericarditis Causes Group A Streptococcal Cellulitis Seborrheic Dermatitis Lymphoma Hepatomegaly Salmonella Zidovudine Spontaneous Pneumothorax Marijuana Small Bowel Obstruction Charlson Comorbidity Index Bacillary Angiomatosis Peliosis Hepatitis Mycobacterium Avium Complex Isospora belli Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Oral Health Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Lymphocyte Count Didanosine Symmetric Peripheral Neuropathy Lymphoma in HIV Brain Tumor Against Medical Advice Pregnane Progestin Cachexia in Cancer Lipodystrophy Viral Encephalitis Impetigo Unintentional Weight Loss HIV and AIDS Links Efavirenz HIV and AIDS Books Journal Abbreviations Neuroimaging after First Seizure Alcohol Abuse Acute Bacterial Prostatitis Tuberculosis Related Chest XRay Changes Erythropoietin HIV in Pregnancy Testosterone Supplementation Diarrhea in HIV AIDS Dementia Complex Bartonella Yellow Nail Syndrome Rhinosinusitis Candida Vulvovaginitis Cryptococcal Meningitis Babesiosis Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Spinal Infection Echinacea Ichthyosis Hepatitis in HIV Pneumonia Causes Dyspnea History Practice Management Links Headache in HIV Hairy Tongue Failure to Thrive in the Elderly Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Sexually Transmitted Disease in HIV HIV Test Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes Asymmetric Peripheral Neuropathy Bacterial Endocarditis Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Intertrigo Psoriatic Arthritis Unintentional Weight Loss Causes Night Sweats Erythema Multiforme Major Adverse Drug Reaction Human Bite Hepatitis B Cervical Cancer Cardiovascular Manifestations of HIV Pediatric HIV Urinary Tract Infection Heart Transplant Medication Compliance Family Practice Notebook Updates 2017 Erythroderma Orbital Cellulitis Genital Wart Granuloma Annulare Hypothyroidism Acute Diarrhea Neutropenic Colitis Generalized Lymphadenopathy Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine Neisseria gonorrhoeae Preconception Counseling Rhabdomyolysis Causes Aseptic Meningitis Gastrointestinal Manifestations of HIV Polyarteritis Nodosa Preventive Health Care of Women Who Have Sex With Women Erythralgia Pruritus Causes Splenomegaly Lymphadenopathy Thrombocytopenia CD4 Cell Count HIV Related Rheumatologic Conditions Fever of Unknown Origin History Herpes Zoster Pneumonia Tuberculin Skin Test Headache Red Flag Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Health Care of the Homeless Niacin Deficiency Skin Infection Nonspecific Management of Pruritus Taste Dysfunction Loss of Smell Asplenic Trichomonal Vaginitis Viral skin infection in HIV Gynecologic Manifestations of HIV HIV Exposure Primary Series Bacterial Meningitis Management St. John’s Wort Major Depression Differential Diagnosis Polymyalgia Rheumatica Septic Joint Pediatric Anemia Causes Vaccines in Immunocompromised Patients Family Practice Notebook Updates 2016 Onychomycosis Addison’s Disease Neck Masses in Children Lymphadenopathy in HIV Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura HIV Related Neuropathy Typhoid Vaccine Yellow Fever Vaccine Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Genital Herpes Opioid Abuse Psychosis Psychosis Differential Diagnosis Antinuclear Antibody Proteinuria Causes Postexposure Prophylaxis Toxic Shock Syndrome Tetanus Psoriasis Anal Fissure Cytomegalovirus Mononucleosis-Like Syndrome Tuberculous Peritonitis Cesarean Section Methadone for Opioid Dependence Testicular Failure Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery Sulfonamide Allergy Acute Nonsuppurative Sialoadenitis Direct Bilirubin Primary Immunodeficiency Malaria Viral Meningitis Exchange Transfusion in Newborns Breast Feeding Suppurative Tenosynovitis Nephrotic Syndrome Fatigue Causes Osteoporosis Secondary to Medication Proctitis Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Preventive Health Care of Men Who Have Sex With Men Multidrug Resistance Score Systolic Dysfunction Pulmonary Hypertension Causes Necrotizing Otitis Externa Lymphadenopathy in the Febrile Returning Traveler Emerging Infection Atovaquone Parvovirus B19 Guillain Barre Syndrome Failure to Thrive Causes HIV Course Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcus Fever in the Returning Traveler Varicella Zoster Virus Vaccine Possibly Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment HIV Risk Factor Family Practice Notebook Updates 2014 Orthostatic Hypotension Hepatitis C Gluten Enteropathy Meningococcal Vaccine International Medical Concerns Isoniazid Herpes Ophthalmicus Multiple Sclerosis Substance Abuse Evaluation Methamphetamine Acute Glomerulonephritis AIDS-Defining Illness Pulmonary Hypertension Salivary Gland Enlargement HIV Risk Screening Questions Cholera Vaccine Influenza Vaccine Smallpox Vaccine Pentamidine Noisy Breathing Acute Kidney Injury Causes Wound Repair Chronic Paronychia Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Hives Thrush Dry Mouth Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Hodgkin Disease Brucellosis Candidiasis Viral Causes of Arthritis Lung Cancer Active Tuberculosis Treatment Paresthesia Causes Polymyositis Differential Diagnosis Reiter’s Syndrome Pre-participation History Proteinuria in Children HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Body Piercing Infectious Causes of Neutropenia Pneumococcal Vaccine Virus Tuberculosis Screening in Children Low Back Pain Red Flag Chronic Renal Failure Abdominal Pain Evaluation Transfusion Complication Sexually Transmitted Disease Latent Tuberculosis Treatment Dementia Increased Intracranial Pressure Causes Osteomyelitis Causes Zinc Osteoporosis Secondary Causes Exercising with Infection Epididymitis Menomune Cardiomyopathy HIV Complications Tuberculosis Risk Factors for progression from Latent to Active Disease Gynecomastia Erythema Multiforme Cryptosporidium parvum Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Aplastic Anemia HIV Presentation Anti-Retroviral Therapy Cutaneous Conditions in Febrile Returning Traveler Strongyloides Varicella Vaccine Tuberculosis Risk Factors Dementia Causes Refugee Health Exam Joint Pain Polyarticular Arthritis Abnormal Gait and Balance Causes in the Elderly Thrombocytopenia Causes Ataxia in Children

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS.

The first cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in 1981 but it is now clear that cases of the disease had been occurring unrecognized for at least 4 years before its identification. The disease is characterized by a susceptibility to infection with opportunistic pathogens or by the occurrence of an aggressive form of Kaposi’s sarcoma or B-cell lymphoma, accompanied by a profound decrease in the number of CD4 T cells. As it seemed to be spread by contact with body fluids, it was early suspected to be caused by a new virus, and by 1983 the agent now known to be responsible for AIDS, called the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was isolated and identified. It is now clear there are at least two types of HIV—HIV-1 and HIV-2—which are closely related to each other. HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa and is now spreading in India. Most AIDS worldwide, however, is caused by the more virulent HIV-1. Both viruses appear to have spread to humans from other primate species and the best evidence from sequence relationships suggests that HIV-1 has passed to humans on at least three independent occasions from the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, and HIV-2 from the sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys.

Last year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, using the first comprehensive national estimates of lifetime risk of H.I.V. for several key populations, predicted that if current rates continue, one in two African-American gay and bisexual men will be infected with the virus. That compares with a lifetime risk of one in 99 for all Americans and one in 11 for white gay and bisexual men. To offer more perspective: Swaziland, a tiny African nation, has the world’s highest rate of H.I.V., at 28.8 percent of the population. If gay and bisexual African-American men made up a country, its rate would surpass that of this impoverished African nation — and all other nations.

Jump up ^ Daniel MD, King NW, Letvin NL, Hunt RD, Sehgal PK, Desrosiers RC (1984). “A new type D retrovirus isolated from macaques with an immunodeficiency syndrome”. Science. 223 (4636): 602–5. Bibcode:1984Sci…223..602D. doi:10.1126/science.6695172. PMID 6695172.

Jump up ^ Gao, F.; Bailes, E.; Robertson, D.L.; et al. (February 1999). “Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes”. Nature. 397 (6718): 436–41. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..436G. doi:10.1038/17130. PMID 9989410.

NRTIs block an enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus called reverse transcriptase that allows HIV to infect human cells, particularly CD4 cells or lymphocytes. Reverse transcriptase converts HIV genetic material, which is RNA, into human genetic material, which is DNA. The human-like DNA of HIV then becomes part of the infected person’s own cells, allowing the cell to produce RNA copies of the HIV that can then go on to attack other not yet infected cells. Thus, blocking reverse transcriptase prevents HIV from taking over (infecting) human cells.

HIV/AIDS affects the economics of both individuals and countries.[211] The gross domestic product of the most affected countries has decreased due to the lack of human capital.[211][257] Without proper nutrition, health care and medicine, large numbers of people die from AIDS-related complications. They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. It is estimated that as of 2007 there were 12 million AIDS orphans.[211] Many are cared for by elderly grandparents.[258]

More than 70% of HIV infections are transmitted through sexual contact. Traditionally in the United States, the majority of cases were found in homosexual or bisexual In 2007, about half of new HIV cases were acquired by men having sex with other men. Fewer than 20% of HIV-positive Americans were women. However, this is not the case worldwide, where transmission by heterosexual individuals is common.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The disease alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens if the syndrome progresses.

The first step in fusion involves the high-affinity attachment of the CD4 binding domains of gp120 to CD4. Once gp120 is bound with the CD4 protein, the envelope complex undergoes a structural change, exposing the chemokine receptor binding domains of gp120 and allowing them to interact with the target chemokine receptor.[55][56] This allows for a more stable two-pronged attachment, which allows the N-terminal fusion peptide gp41 to penetrate the cell membrane.[55][56] Repeat sequences in gp41, HR1, and HR2 then interact, causing the collapse of the extracellular portion of gp41 into a hairpin. This loop structure brings the virus and cell membranes close together, allowing fusion of the membranes and subsequent entry of the viral capsid.[55][56]

In 2008, 2,120,000 people were receiving treatment – 30% of the total number needing it. In 2012, this figure had risen to 7.6 million. Because the WHO expanded its criteria for people who would benefit from antiretroviral therapy, this still only equates to 25% of the population who needs it.

As the sole viral protein on the surface of the virus, the Envelope protein is a major target for HIV vaccine efforts.[24] Over half of the mass of the trimeric envelope spike is N-linked glycans. The density is high as the glycans shield the underlying viral protein from neutralisation by antibodies. This is one of the most densely glycosylated molecules known and the density is sufficiently high to prevent the normal maturation process of glycans during biogenesis in the endoplasmic and Golgi apparatus.[25][26] The majority of the glycans are therefore stalled as immature ‘high-mannose’ glycans not normally present on human glycoproteins that are secreted or present on a cell surface.[27] The unusual processing and high density means that almost all broadly neutralising antibodies that have so far been identified (from a subset of patients that have been infected for many months to years) bind to or, are adapted to cope with, these envelope glycans.[28]

German Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus-Syndrom, HIV-Infektion NNB, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infektion, unspezifisch, HIV-Erkrankung, Nicht naeher bezeichnete HIV-Krankheit [Humane Immundefizienz-Viruskrankheit], LYMPHOTROPES VIRUS TYP III INFEKTIONEN HUMANE T, HTLV WIII INFEKTIONEN, HTLV WIII LAV INFEKTIONEN, HIV-Infektionen, HIV-Infektion, HTLV-III-Infektionen, HTLV-III-LAV-Infektionen, T-lymphotropes Virus Typ III-Infektionen, humane

Robb ML, Rerks-Ngarm S, Nitayaphan S, et al. Risk behaviour and time as covariates for efficacy of the HIV vaccine regimen ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E: a post-hoc analysis of the Thai phase 3 efficacy trial RV 144. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Jul. 12(7):531-7. [Medline]. [Full Text]. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]

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