B19 virus a species belonging to the genus Erythrovirus that binds to the erythrocyte P blood group antigen and is the cause of erythema infectiosum. In patients with hemolytic anemia or sickle cell disease it causes aplastic crisis; it can also cause acute arthritis. Fetal infection can cause hydrops fetalis and spontaneous abortion or death in utero. Persistent infection in immunocompromised patients can lead to chronic bone marrow failure. Called also human parvovirus B19.
Without treatment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will usually result in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, in Australia the HIV therapies introduced in the mid-1990s, which are available to all Australians living with HIV, have resulted in fewer AIDS related illnesses and deaths. Therefore, whilst a cure is yet to be found for HIV and it remains a lifelong infection, HIV in Australia is now considered a chronic manageable condition.
^ Jump up to: a b Sodora DL, Allan JS, Apetrei C, Brenchley JM, Douek DC, Else JG, Estes JD, Hahn BH, Hirsch VM, Kaur A, Kirchhoff F, Muller-Trutwin M, Pandrea I, Schmitz JE, Silvestri G (2009). “Toward an AIDS vaccine: lessons from natural simian immunodeficiency virus infections of African nonhuman primate hosts”. Nature Medicine. 15 (8): 861–865. doi:10.1038/nm.2013. PMC 2782707 . PMID 19661993.
^ Jump up to: a b World Health Organization (May 2003). Nutrient requirements for living with HIV/AIDS: Report of a technical consultation (PDF). Geneva. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
Jump up ^ Kolata, Gina (October 28, 1987). “Boy’s 1969 Death Suggests AIDS Invaded U.S. Several Times”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
Although the tests for detecting HIV infection continue to improve, they still require that people volunteer for testing. It is estimated that approximately 15% of those infected with HIV in the United States are unaware of their infection because they have never been tested. In order to decrease the number that are unaware of their HIV infection status, in 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that all people between 13 and 64 years of age be provided HIV testing whenever they encounter the health care system for any reason. In addition, resources are available to facilitate people finding local HIV testing centers (https://gettested.cdc.gov/).
We’ve come a long way from the days when diagnosis with HIV equaled a death sentence. Today, there are a variety of treatments that, when used in combination can significantly slow down and in some cases stop altogether, the progression of HIV infection.
Serological tests, such as RDTs or enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), detect the presence or absence of antibodies to HIV-1/2 and/or HIV p24 antigen. No single HIV test can provide an HIV-positive diagnosis. It is important that these tests are used in combination and in a specific order that has been validated and is based on HIV prevalence of the population being tested. HIV infection can be detected with great accuracy, using WHO prequalified tests within a validated approach.
During this phase, the infection is established and a proviral reservoir is created. [60, 61] This reservoir consists of persistently infected cells, typically macrophages, and appears to steadily release virus. Some of the viral release replenishes the reservoir, and some goes on to produce more active infection.
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, and male circumcision. Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy. Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made. Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
DeJesus E, Rockstroh JK, Henry K, et al. Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2012 Jun 30. 379(9835):2429-38. [Medline].
HIV attacks and destroys a type of white blood cell called a CD4 cell, commonly called the T-cell. This cell’s main function is to fight disease. When a person’s CD4 cell count gets low, they are more susceptible to illnesses.
Jump up ^ Chitnis A, Rawls D, Moore J (2000). “Origin of HIV type 1 in colonial French equatorial Africa?”. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 16 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1089/088922200309548. PMID 10628811.
Since AIDS can be transmitted from an infected mother to a fetus during pregnancy or to an infant during the birth process or through breastfeeding, all infants born to HIV-positive mothers are considered a high-risk group. However, prenatal drug treatment of HIV-positive mothers in developed countries has reduced the number of children born infected with HIV. In the developing world, drug treatment is either not available or not affordable. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) worldwide 2.3 million children under age 13 were living with HIV in 2006. The previous year, about 380,000 children died of AIDS and more than half a million children were newly infected. UNICEF estimates that at least 15 million children have lost at least one parent to AIDS. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]