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Your doctor can monitor how well your HIV treatment is working by measuring the amount of HIV in your blood (also called the viral load.) The goal of treatment is to get the viral load undetectable on labs tests; ideally less than 20 copies. This does not mean the virus is gone or cured, it means the medication is working and must be continued.

AIDS is not a virus but a set of symptoms (or syndrome) caused by the HIV virus. A person is said to have AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infection, and they develop certain defining symptoms and illnesses. This is the last stage of HIV, when the infection is very advanced, and if left untreated will lead to death.

Sexual intercourse is the major mode of HIV transmission. Both X4 and R5 HIV are present in the seminal fluid, which enables the virus to be transmitte from a male to his sexual partner. The virions can then infect numerous cellular targets and disseminate into the whole organism. However, a selection process leads to a predominant transmission of the R5 virus through this pathway.[47][48][49] In patients infected with subtype B HIV-1, there is often a co-receptor switch in late-stage disease and T-tropic variants that can infect a variety of T cells through CXCR4.[50] These variants then replicate more aggressively with heightened virulence that causes rapid T cell depletion, immune system collapse, and opportunistic infections that mark the advent of AIDS.[51] Thus, during the course of infection, viral adaptation to the use of CXCR4 instead of CCR5 may be a key step in the progression to AIDS. A number of studies with subtype B-infected individuals have determined that between 40 and 50 percent of AIDS patients can harbour viruses of the SI and, it is presumed, the X4 phenotypes.[52][53]

If you have these symptoms, that doesn’t mean you have HIV. Each of these symptoms can be caused by other illnesses. But if you have these symptoms after a potential exposure to HIV, see a health care provider and tell them about your risk. The only way to determine whether you are infected is to be tested for HIV infection.

Background and Methods National surveillance data show recent, marked reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To evaluate these declines, we analyzed data on 1255 patients, each of whom had at least one

HIV is the virus that’s passed from person to person. Over time, HIV destroys an important kind of the cell in your immune system (called CD4 cells or T cells) that helps protect you from infections. When you don’t have enough of these CD4 cells, your body can’t fight off infections the way it normally can.

Jump up ^ Koch P, Lampe M, Godinez WJ, Müller B, Rohr K, Kräusslich HG, Lehmann MJ (2009). “Visualizing fusion of pseudotyped HIV-1 particles in real time by live cell microscopy”. Retrovirology. 6: 84. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-6-84. PMC 2762461 . PMID 19765276.

In the United States, the face of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically. Adolescents and young adults less than 25 years of age now account for half the new HIV infections reported annually to the CDC and for most perinatally acquired infections. As a result, strategies to prevent new infection and manage the long-term effects of past infection have focused increasingly on the second and third decades of life.

Jump up ^ When To Start, Consortium; Sterne, JA; May, M; Costagliola, D; de Wolf, F; Phillips, AN; Harris, R; Funk, MJ; Geskus, RB; Gill, J; Dabis, F; Miró, JM; Justice, AC; Ledergerber, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Hogg, RS; Monforte, AD; Saag, M; Smith, C; Staszewski, S; Egger, M; Cole, SR (April 18, 2009). “Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-free HIV-1-infected patients: a collaborative analysis of 18 HIV cohort studies”. Lancet. 373 (9672): 1352–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60612-7. PMC 2670965 . PMID 19361855.

Jump up ^ “Guidelines for intensified tuberculosis case-finding and isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource-constrained settings” (PDF). Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization 2011. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 19, 2014.

Once introduced into humans, HIV was spread through sexual intercourse from person to person. As infected people moved around, the virus spread from Africa other areas of the world. In 1981, U.S. physicians noticed that a large number of young men were dying of unusual infections and cancers. Initially, U.S. victims were predominately gay men, probably because the virus inadvertently entered this population first in this country and because the virus is transmitted easily during anal intercourse. However, it is important to note that the virus also is efficiently transmitted through heterosexual activity and contact with infected blood or secretions. In Africa, which remains the center of the AIDS pandemic, most cases are heterosexually transmitted. Twenty years ago, the news that Magic Johnson had acquired HIV heterosexually helped the country realize that the infection was not limited to men who had sex with men. Currently in the U.S., approximately 27% of new HIV infections are a result of heterosexual transmission.

Most individuals develop antibodies to HIV within 28 days of infection and therefore antibodies may not be detectable early, during the so-called window period. This early period of infection represents the time of greatest infectivity; however HIV transmission can occur during all stages of the infection.

(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) An immunological disorder in which the body’s immune response system becomes defective, leaving the sufferer open to opportunistic infections and some forms of cancer, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is caused by infection with the HIV virus, transmitted mainly through sexual intercourse or infected blood products.

The success of ART is assessed by measuring plasma HIV RNA levels every 8 to 12 wk for the first 4 to 6 mo or until HIV levels are undetectable and every 3 to 6 mo thereafter. Increasing HIV levels are the earliest evidence of treatment failure and may precede a decreasing CD4 count by months. Maintaining patients on failing drug regimens selects for HIV mutants that are more drug-resistant. However, compared with wild-type HIV, these mutants appear less able to reduce the CD4 count, and failing drug regimens are often continued when no fully suppressive regimen can be found. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]

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