Some people may experience a flu-like illness within 2 to 4 weeks after infection (Stage 1 HIV infection). But some people may not feel sick during this stage. Flu-like symptoms include fever, chills, rash, night sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, or mouth ulcers. These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. During this time, HIV infection may not show up on an HIV test, but people who have it are highly infectious and can spread the infection to others.
For this strategy to work, however, one must be able to test people at risk of infection with HIV periodically, so that they can take the steps necessary to avoid passing the virus to others. This, in turn, requires strict confidentiality and mutual trust. A barrier to the control of HIV is the reluctance of individuals to find out whether they are infected, especially as one of the consequences of a positive HIV test is stigmatization by society. As a result, infected individuals can unwittingly infect many others. Balanced against this is the success of therapy with combinations of the new protease inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which provides an incentive for potentially infected people to identify the presence of infection and gain the benefits of treatment. Responsibility is at the heart of AIDS prevention, and a law guaranteeing the rights of people infected with HIV might go a long way to encouraging responsible behavior. The rights of HIV-infected people are protected in the Netherlands and Sweden. The problem in the less-developed nations, where elementary health precautions are difficult to establish, is more profound.
Any of several hereditary blood coagulation disorders occurring almost exclusively in males. Because blood does not clot properly, even minor injuries can cause significant blood loss that may require a blood transfusion, with its associated minor risk of infection.
ABC can cause a hypersensitivity reaction during the first two to six weeks of therapy in approximately 5% of individuals. The hypersensitivity reaction most often causes fever and other symptoms, such as muscle aches, nausea, diarrhea, rash, or cough. The symptoms generally get worse with each dose of ABC and, if suspected, therapy must be discontinued and never restarted for fear of developing a life-threatening reaction. There is now a simple blood test (HLA-B*5701) that can be performed to determine whether a patient is at risk for developing the hypersensitivity reaction. If the test is positive, the patient should never receive this medication. There is also conflicting data stating that abacavir may or may not be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events.
People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high risk of getting infections that are uncommon in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections. These can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa, and can affect any part of the body. People with AIDS are also at higher risk for certain cancers, especially lymphomas and a skin cancer called Kaposi sarcoma.
Commercial sex workers (including those in pornography) have an increased rate of HIV. Rough sex can be a factor associated with an increased risk of transmission. Sexual assault is also believed to carry an increased risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely worn, physical trauma to the vagina or rectum is likely, and there may be a greater risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections.
Sex is an old battleground in public education. Liberals and conservatives argued over it in the decade following the sexual revolution of the 1960s, initially over whether sexual issues should be discussed in schools. After all, earlier generations who went to public schools learned mainly about reproductive organs. As new classes began appearing in the late 1970s, children learned about the sexual choices people make. If liberals appeared to win the “sex ed.” debate, growing social problems helped: rises in teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases secured a place for more explicit school health classes. The much greater threat of AIDS pushed state legislatures into action. By the mid-1990s, AIDS prevention classes had been mandated in at least 34 states and recommended in 14. But the appearance of even more explicit teaching has reinvigorated the sex ed. debate.
In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. When these proteins assemble to form the capsid, part of the host cell membrane is pinched off to form the envelope of the virion.
Jump up ^ Stumptner-Cuvelette P, Morchoisne S, Dugast M, Le Gall S, Raposo G, Schwartz O, Benaroch P (October 2001). “HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (21): 12144–9. Bibcode:2001PNAS…9812144S. doi:10.1073/pnas.221256498. PMC 59782 . PMID 11593029.
There are different variants of HIV, and the cell types that they infect are determined to a large degree by which chemokine receptor they bind as co-receptor. The variants of HIV that are associated with primary infections use CCR5, which binds the CC chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β (see Chapter 2), as a co-receptor, and require only a low level of CD4 on the cells they infect. These variants of HIV infect dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells in vivo. However, they are often described simply as ‘macrophage-tropic’ because they infect macrophage but not T-cell lines in vitro and the cell tropism of different HIV variants was originally defined by their ability to grow in different cell lines.
Side effects differ from person to person. The most common are dizziness and headache. Serious side effects may include swelling of the mouth and tongue and liver damage. Drug interactions and drug resistance are also possible.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids. Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant through breast milk. An HIV-positive mother can transmit HIV to her baby both during pregnancy and childbirth due to exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
If the patient does suppress their virus to undetectable levels on antiviral therapy but then develops detectable virus, several things should be considered. First, it must be established that the patient is taking the medications correctly. If they are missing doses, then every effort must be made to understand why this is happening and correct the situation, if possible. If the poor adherence is a result of drug side effects, efforts should be directed toward managing the side effects or changing to a better-tolerated regimen. If poor adherence is occurring because of the medication schedule of dosing, new strategies should be discussed such as placing medications in a pillbox, associating the dosing with certain daily activities such as tooth brushing, or possibly changing the regimen. Finally, if the reason for poor adherence is depression, substance abuse, or another personal issue, these issues need to be addressed and managed. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]