4. Masur, H. et al (1981) ‘An Outbreak of community acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction’ The New England Journal Of Medicine 305(24):1431-1438
Careful investigation has helped scientists determine where AIDS came from. Studies have shown that HIV first arose in Africa. It spread from primates to people early in the 20th century, possibly when humans came into contact with infected blood during a chimpanzee hunt. By testing stored blood samples, scientists have found direct evidence of a human being infected as long ago as 1959.
Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983 May 20. 220(4599):868-71. [Medline].
Risk of transmitting HIV is highest during vaginal or anal sex when a condom is not used or is used incorrectly. HIV transmission can also occur during oral sex, although transmission is less likely than during vaginal or anal sex.
Changes in survival of people infected with HIV. As therapies have become more aggressive, they have been more effective, although survival with HIV infection is not yet equivalent to that in uninfected people. Modified from an original published by Lohse et al (2007), “Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005.”
T-tropic strains of HIV-1, or syncytia-inducing (SI; now called X4 viruses) strains replicate in primary CD4+ T cells as well as in macrophages and use the α-chemokine receptor, CXCR4, for entry.
One interesting issue is that the co-receptor usage of the virus strains tends to change over time. The initial infection nearly always involves a strain that uses the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), which is found on macrophages and dendritic cells, as a co-receptor with CD4. People who are homozygous for deletions in the CCR5 gene (ie, CCR5-delta32) tend to be resistant to infection, [46, 47] and those with heterozygosity for the polymorphism tend to show slower progression of disease. 
The success of ART is assessed by measuring plasma HIV RNA levels every 8 to 12 wk for the first 4 to 6 mo or until HIV levels are undetectable and every 3 to 6 mo thereafter. Increasing HIV levels are the earliest evidence of treatment failure and may precede a decreasing CD4 count by months. Maintaining patients on failing drug regimens selects for HIV mutants that are more drug-resistant. However, compared with wild-type HIV, these mutants appear less able to reduce the CD4 count, and failing drug regimens are often continued when no fully suppressive regimen can be found.
Jump up ^ Surveillance; riques, Risk Assessment Division = Le VIH et le sida au Canada: rapport de surveillance en date du 31 décembre 2009 / Division de la surveillance et de l’évaluation des (2010). HIV and AIDS in Canada : surveillance report to December 31, 2009 (PDF). Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division. ISBN 978-1-100-52141-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2012.
Higher viral loads in the source partner are associated with higher transmission rates; thus, because barrier contraception is imperfect (although by far the best method to prevent sexual transmission), good control of viral load is important.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually occur only in individuals with a weak immune system.
Black gay and bisexual men and the organizations and activists that support them have come to the painful realization that the nation and society have failed them and that they must take care of themselves and one another. Their group names and slogans reflect a kind of defiant lift-as-we-climb self-reliance: My Brother’s Keeper; Us Helping Us Washington; the Saving Ourselves Symposium that takes place in Jackson this week; Our People, Our Problem, Our Solution, the tag line of the Black AIDS Institute. Since last October, the young men in Sturdevant’s orbit have been supported by the fragile scaffolding that “Mr. Ced” has constructed around them and with them. Jordon has gained weight and is up and walking. Marq has promised to stay on his meds and has begun calling Sturdevant “Dad.” Benjamin Jennings has a new job as a corrections officer at a prison north of Jackson. Jermerious Buckley is “mother,” as he puts it, to six gay “children” of his own. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]