Jump up ^ Lee, KY; Tsai, MS; Kuo, KC; Tsai, JC; Sun, HY; Cheng, AC; Chang, SY; Lee, CH; Hung, CC (2014). “Pneumococcal vaccination among HIV-infected adult patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy”. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 10 (12): 3700–10. doi:10.4161/hv.32247. PMC 4514044 . PMID 25483681.
Jump up ^ Pritchard, Laura K.; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Seabright, Gemma E.; Cupo, Albert; Ringe, Rajesh; Kim, Helen J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Doores, Katie J. (2015-06-16). “Structural Constraints Determine the Glycosylation of HIV-1 Envelope Trimers”. Cell Reports. 11 (10): 1604–1613. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.017. ISSN 2211-1247. PMC 4555872 . PMID 26051934.
hepatitis G virus (HGV) a parenterally transmitted flavivirus originally isolated from a patient with chronic hepatitis; most infections are benign, and it is uncertain what role, if any, HGV plays in the etiology of liver disease.
Jump up ^ Sigal A, Kim JT, Balazs AB, Dekel E, Mayo A, Milo R, Baltimore D (2011). “Cell-to-cell spread of HIV permits ongoing replication despite antiretroviral therapy”. Nature. 477 (7362): 95–98. doi:10.1038/nature10347. PMID 21849975.
Acute retroviral syndrome describes a group of symptoms that can resemble mononucleosis and that may be the first sign of HIV infection in 50-70% of all patients and 45-90% of women. Most patients are not recognized as HIV positive during this phase and may not seek medical attention. The symptoms are similar to those of many other diseases and may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, loss of appetite, digestive disturbances, weight loss, skin rashes, headache, and chronically swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Some patients will experience a form of meningitis during this phase in which the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Acute retroviral syndrome develops between one and six weeks after infection and lasts for two to three weeks. Blood tests during this period will indicate the presence of HIV virus (viremia) and the appearance of the viral p24 antigen in the blood.
CDC. HIV risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among heterosexuals at increased risk for HIV infection—National HIV behavioral surveillance system, 21 U.S. cities, 2010. MMWR Surveill Summ 2014;63(No. SS-14).
If doctors suspect exposure to HIV infection, they do a screening test detect antibodies to HIV. (Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to help defend the body against a particular attack, including that by HIV.) In addition, doctors recommend that all adults and adolescents, particularly pregnant women, have a screening test regardless of what their risk appears to be. Anyone who is concerned about being infected with HIV can request to be tested. Such testing is confidential.
Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (also called nucleoside analogues). These drugs work by interfering with the action of HIV reverse transcriptase inside infected cells, thus ending the virus’s replication process. These drugs include zidovudine (Retrovir), lamivudine (Epivir), and abacavir (Ziagen) and many others. They are often used in used in multi-drug combinations.
nerve entrapment syndromes local nerve trunk compression (e.g. tibial, medial calcaneal lateral, first lateral branch of calcaneal, lateral plantar, high tibial, popliteal, deep peroneal, superficial, saphenous, sural or medial common hallucal nerves), as in tarsal/carpal tunnel syndromes, plantar digital neuritis, Morton’s neuroma; characterized by distressing distal dermatomal sensory (e.g. pain and paraesthesia) and/or motor symptoms (e.g. muscle atrophy) (see Table 8)
Understanding the risk of body tattooing or any body piercing. The risk of being infected with HIV through these practices is lower than for hepatitis B or hepatitis C, but there is still a risk if there is use of unsterile equipment or re-used dyes. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]