15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1983, 7 January) ‘Epidemiologic notes and reports immunodeficiency among female sexual partners of males with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) – New York’ MMWR Weekly 31(52):697-698
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus, which can infect humans when it comes in contact with tissues that line the vagina, anal area, mouth, or eyes, or through a break in the skin.
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Jump up ^ Barbaro, G; Barbarini, G (December 2011). “Human immunodeficiency virus & cardiovascular risk”. The Indian journal of medical research. 134 (6): 898–903. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.92634. PMC 3284097 . PMID 22310821.
Initially, some researchers referred to the syndrome as gay-related immune deficiency (GRID), since it appeared to be limited to homosexuals. In the media the disease commonly was referred to as the “gay plague.” But the disease had also been detected in intravenous drug users, who became infected mainly by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles. It also had been observed in women with male sexual partners. As a result, the term acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, was introduced to describe the disease; the CDC published its first report using the term in 1982.
Jump up ^ Mehandru S, Poles MA, Tenner-Racz K, Horowitz A, Hurley A, Hogan C, Boden D, Racz P, Markowitz M (September 2004). “Primary HIV-1 infection is associated with preferential depletion of CD4+ T cells from effector sites in the gastrointestinal tract”. J. Exp. Med. 200 (6): 761–70. doi:10.1084/jem.20041196. PMC 2211967 . PMID 15365095.
Any of several hereditary blood coagulation disorders occurring almost exclusively in males. Because blood does not clot properly, even minor injuries can cause significant blood loss that may require a blood transfusion, with its associated minor risk of infection.
At this stage in the infection, persons infected with HIV exhibit few or no signs or symptoms for a few years to a decade or more. Viral replication is clearly ongoing during this time,  and the immune response against the virus is effective and vigorous. In some patients, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy is an outward sign of infection. During this time, the viral load, if untreated, tends to persist at a relatively steady state, but the CD4+ T-cell count steadily declines. This rate of decline is related to, but not easily predicted by, the steady-state viral load.
There is no fixed site of integration, but the virus tends to integrate in areas of active transcription, probably because these areas have more open chromatin and more easily accessible DNA. [58, 59] This greatly complicates eradication of the virus by the host, as latent proviral genomes can persist without being detected by the immune system and cannot be targeted by antivirals. See the image below.
Acute retroviral syndrome usually begins within 1 to 4 wk of infection and usually lasts 3 to 14 days. Symptoms and signs are often mistaken for infectious mononucleosis or benign, nonspecific viral syndromes and may include fever, malaise, fatigue, several types of dermatitis, sore throat, arthralgias, generalized lymphadenopathy, and septic meningitis.
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complex regional pain syndrome type 1; CRPS 1; reflex sympathetic dystrophy; Sudek’s atrophy; allodynia sympathetic nervous system-mediated acute pain and vasomotor instability, triggered by minor or surgical trauma without obvious nerve injury; affects women more than men; pain is excessive and out of proportion to severity of initiating injury; diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms aided by bone scan, laser Doppler studies and thermography; patients may show anxiety, depression and disturbed sleep; condition is difficult to manage; patients suspected of CRPS 1 should have early referral to a pain clinic (see Table 2); presents in three stages:
The vast majority of infections remain in sub-Saharan Africa, where 5.2% of the population is thought to be infected. Between 2004 and 2006, the prevalence of HIV infection in central and eastern Asia and Eastern Europe increased by 21%. During this period, the number of new HIV infections in persons aged 15 to 64 years rose by 70% in Eastern Europe and central Asia.
You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:
Developing AIDS requires that the person acquire HIV infection. Risks for acquiring HIV infection include behaviors that result in contact with infected blood or sexual secretions, which pose the main risk of HIV transmission. These behaviors include sexual intercourse and injection drug use. The presence of sores in the genital area, like those caused by herpes, makes it easier for the virus to pass from person to person during intercourse. HIV also has been spread to health care workers through accidental sticks with needles contaminated with blood from HIV-infected people, or when broken skin has come into contact with infected blood or secretions. Blood products used for transfusions or injections also may spread infection, although this has become extremely rare (less than one in 2 million transfusions in the U.S.) due to testing of blood donors and blood supplies for HIV. Finally, infants may acquire HIV from an infected mother either while they are in the womb, during birth, or by breastfeeding after birth.
In the United States, HIV disease was first described in 1981 among 2 groups, one in San Francisco and the other in New York City. Numerous young homosexual men presented with opportunistic infections that, at the time, were typically associated with severe immune deficiency: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and aggressive Kaposi sarcoma. 
AIDS is the more advanced stage of HIV infection. When the immune system CD4 cells drop to a very low level, a person’s ability to fight infection is lost. In addition, there are several conditions that occur in people with HIV infection with this degree of immune system failure — these are called AIDS-defining illnesses.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Wyatt R, Sodroski J (1998). “The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: fusogens, antigens, and immunogens”. Science. 280 (5371): 1884–8. Bibcode:1998Sci…280.1884W. doi:10.1126/science.280.5371.1884. PMID 9632381.
An updated algorithm published by the CDC in June 2014 recommends that diagnosis starts with the p24 antigen test. A negative result rules out infection, while a positive one must be followed by an HIV-1/2 antibody differentiation immunoassay. A positive differentiation test confirms diagnosis, while a negative or indeterminate result must be followed by nucleic acid test (NAT). A positive NAT result confirms HIV-1 infection whereas a negative result rules out infection (false positive p24).
If latent TB is suspected (based on tuberculin skin tests, interferon-gamma release assays, high-risk exposure, personal history of active TB, or residence in a region with high TB prevalence), regardless of CD4 count, patients should be given isoniazid 5 mg/kg (up to 300 mg) po once/day plus pyridoxine (vitamin B6) 10 to 25 mg po once/day for 9 mo to prevent reactivation.
In this era of increasingly effective treatments for HIV, people with HIV are living longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Deaths from HIV infection have greatly declined in the United States since the 1990s. As the number of people living with HIV grows, it will be more important than ever to increase national HIV prevention and health care programs.
Over the past 3 decades the world has witnessed the evolution of the HIV pandemic. The impact of this infection continues to devastate much of Africa and many poor communities throughout the world. The immunosuppression and immune dysregulation that typifies this disease is triggered by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of which there are two subtypes: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 has been responsible for the majority of infections worldwide, whilst HIV-2 causes a milder disease and has affected predominantly those in West Africa. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]