If an individual believes they have been exposed to the virus within the last 72 hours (3 days), anti-HIV medications, called PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) may stop infection. The treatment should be taken as soon as possible after contact with the virus.
Jump up ^ Holmes CB, Losina E, Walensky RP, Yazdanpanah Y, Freedberg KA (2003). “Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5): 656–662. doi:10.1086/367655. PMID 12594648.
In other respects, health care is a distinct area of concern for AIDS patients and health professionals alike. Discrimination has often taken place. State and federal statutes, including the Rehabilitation Act, guarantee access to health care for AIDS patients, and courts have upheld that right. In the 1988 case of Doe v. Centinela Hospital, 57 U.S.L.W. 2034 (C.D. Cal.), for example, an HIV-infected person with no symptoms was excluded from a federally funded hospital residential program for drug and alcohol treatment because health care providers feared exposure to the virus. The case itself exposed the irrationality of such discrimination. Although its employees had feared HIV, the hospital argued in court that the lack of symptoms meant that the patient was not disabled and thus not protected by the Rehabilitation Act. A federal trial court in California rejected this argument, ruling that a refusal to grant services based solely on fear of contagion is discrimination under the Rehabilitation Act.
Paradoxical IRIS typically occurs during the first few months of treatment and usually resolves on its own. If it does not, corticosteroids, given for a short time, are often effective. Paradoxical IRIS is more likely to cause symptoms and symptoms are more likely to be severe when cART is started soon after treatment of an opportunistic infection is started. Thus, for some (but not all) opportunistic infections, cART is delayed until treatment of the opportunistic infection has reduced or eliminated the infection.
The virions of an HIV-1 consist of an envelope, a nucleocapsid, a nucleoid, and a matrix protein. The virus capsid is enveloped. The virions are spherical to pleomorphic and measure 80-100 nm in diameter. The surface projections are small, at 8 nm in length, but densely dispersed and there are inconspicuous spikes that cover the surface evenly. The nucleoid is concentric while the core is rod-shaped or truncated cone-shaped. (source: ICTV db Descriptions)
McMahon DK, Zheng L, Hitti J, Chan ES, Halvas EK, Hong F, et al. Greater Suppression of Nevirapine Resistance With 21- vs 7-Day Antiretroviral Regimens Intrapartum Single-Dose Nevirapine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr. 56(7):1044-51. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Several classes of antiretroviral drugs are used together to treat HIV infection. These drugs block HIV from entering human cells or block the activity of one of the enzymes HIV needs to replicate inside human cells and/or integrate its genetic material into human DNA.
^ Jump up to: a b c Coakley E, Petropoulos CJ, Whitcomb JM (2005). “Assessing ch vbgemokine co-receptor usage in HIV”. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 18 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1097/00001432-200502000-00003. PMID 15647694.
On Saturday nights, men of color in and around Jackson make their way to the gay club Metro. The windowless building with royal blue paint peeling off aluminum siding stands on Highway 80 next to a run-down car shop and has no sign out front; you just have to know. One evening in October, Cedric Sturdevant walked through the dim front room with Regi Stevenson and James Watson, two 20-something colleagues at My Brother’s Keeper. A handful of guys were J-Setting, dancing in the exuberant style that pays homage to the Prancing J-Settes — Jackson State University’s famous all-female dance squad — combined with a splash of vogueing straight out of Harlem’s drag ballroom scene. The three men watched the dancers performing tightly choreographed moves using chairs as props, before greeting their friend Jermerious Buckley, 30, resplendent in green contacts and red four-inch heels, leaning against the bar.
HIV progressively destroys some types of white blood cells called CD4+ lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help defend the body against foreign cells, infectious organisms, and cancer. Thus, when HIV destroys CD4+ lymphocytes, people become susceptible to attack by many other infectious organisms. Many of the complications of HIV infection, including death, usually result from these other infections and not from HIV infection directly.
Programs to prevent the vertical transmission of HIV (from mothers to children) can reduce rates of transmission by 92–99%. This primarily involves the use of a combination of antiviral medications during pregnancy and after birth in the infant and potentially includes bottle feeding rather than breastfeeding. If replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe, mothers should avoid breastfeeding their infants; however exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first months of life if this is not the case. If exclusive breastfeeding is carried out, the provision of extended antiretroviral prophylaxis to the infant decreases the risk of transmission. In 2015, Cuba became the first country in the world to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Medications are also used to prevent opportunistic infections (such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) and can keep AIDS patients healthier for longer periods of time. Opportunistic infections are treated as they occur.
At the present time, there is no cure for AIDS. It has proven to be a universally fatal illness. However, most patients survive many years following diagnosis. HAART has dramatically increased the time from diagnosis to death, and research continues in drug treatments and vaccine development. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]