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Two blood tests are routinely used to monitor HIV-infected people. One of these tests, which counts the number of CD4 cells, assesses the status of the immune system. The other test, which determines the so-called viral load, directly measures the amount of virus in the blood.

The second phase of HIV infection, the asymptomatic period, lasts an average of 10 years. During that period the virus continues to replicate, and there is a slow decrease in the CD4 count (the number of helper T cells). When the CD4 count falls to about 200 cells per microlitre of blood (in an uninfected adult it is typically about 1,000 cells per microlitre), patients begin to experience opportunistic infections—i.e., infections that arise only in individuals with a defective immune system. That is AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection. The most-common opportunistic infections are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium infection, herpes simplex infection, bacterial pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus infection. In addition, patients can develop dementia and certain cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma and lymphomas. Death ultimately results from the relentless attack of opportunistic pathogens or from the body’s inability to fight off malignancies.

Personal risks to the individual whose confidence is breached, such as serious implications for the patient’s relationship with family and friends, the threat of discrimination in employment and housing, intimate partner violence, and the impact on family members

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): This screening test is often used to detect HIV antibodies. For this test, a sample of blood is sent to a laboratory to be analyzed. This test requires complex equipment and waiting for laboratory results

Understanding the risk of body tattooing or any body piercing. The risk of being infected with HIV through these practices is lower than for hepatitis B or hepatitis C, but there is still a risk if there is use of unsterile equipment or re-used dyes.

Hull MW, Rollet K, Odueyungbo A, et al. Factors associated with discordance between absolute CD4 cell count and CD4 cell percentage in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun. 54(12):1798-805. [Medline].

Jump up ^ Koch P, Lampe M, Godinez WJ, Müller B, Rohr K, Kräusslich HG, Lehmann MJ (2009). “Visualizing fusion of pseudotyped HIV-1 particles in real time by live cell microscopy”. Retrovirology. 6: 84. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-6-84. PMC 2762461 . PMID 19765276.

These are standard doses for average-sized adults, and dosing may vary depending upon the weight of a patient. Certain combinations of drugs in this class should generally be avoided, including d4T with ZDV or ddI, 3TC with FTC, and TDF with ddI.

Jump up ^ Kalish, M.; Wolfe, N.D.; Ndongmo, C.D.; McNicholl. J.; Robbins, K.E.; et al. (2005). “Central African hunters exposed to simian immunodeficiency virus”. Emerg Infect Dis. 11 (12): 1928–30. doi:10.3201/eid1112.050394. PMC 3367631 . PMID 16485481.

Italian Infezione da virus dell’immunodeficienza umana, Malattia da virus dell’immunodeficienza umana, Infezione da virus dell’immunodeficienza umana, NAS, Infezione da virus dell’immunodeficienza (HIV), non specificata, Virus dell’immunodeficienza umana (HIV), sindrome, Infezioni da virus di tipo III T-linfotropo umano, Infezioni da HTLV-III-LAV, Infezioni da HTLV-III, Infezioni da HIV

Popper SJ, Sarr AD, Travers KU, et al. Lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 viral load reflects the difference in pathogenicity of HIV-1 and HIV-2. J Infect Dis. 1999 Oct. 180(4):1116-21. [Medline].

Jump up ^ Duesberg, P. H. (1988). “HIV is not the cause of AIDS”. Science. 241 (4865): 514, 517. Bibcode:1988Sci…241..514D. doi:10.1126/science.3399880. PMID 3399880.Cohen, J. (1994). “The Duesberg Phenomenon” (PDF). Science. 266 (5191): 1642–1649. Bibcode:1994Sci…266.1642C. doi:10.1126/science.7992043. PMID 7992043. Archived from the original on January 1, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2009. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]

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