When people get HIV and don’t receive treatment, they will typically progress through three stages of disease. Medicine to treat HIV, known as antiretroviral therapy (ART), helps people at all stages of the disease if taken the right way, every day. Treatment can slow or prevent progression from one stage to the next. It can also dramatically reduce the chance of transmitting HIV to someone else.
Jump up ^ Herek, GM; Capitanio, JP; Widaman, KF (March 2002). “HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999”. American Journal of Public Health. 92 (3): 371–7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.92.3.371. PMC 1447082 . PMID 11867313.
hepatitis A virus (HAV) any virus of the genus Hepatovirus that causes hepatitis a. This has the most rapid onset of the hepatitis viruses affecting humans; transmission is easier than for the hepatitis B and C viruses, but infection generally does not persist. While infection with this virus alone is usually not life-threatening, coincident infection with hepatitis C virus is generally rapidly fatal.
Jump up ^ Gallo, MF; Kilbourne-Brook, M; Coffey, PS (March 2012). “A review of the effectiveness and acceptability of the female condom for dual protection”. Sexual health. 9 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1071/SH11037. PMID 22348629.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne, sexually transmissible virus (see the image below.) The virus is typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), which can occur during the birth process or during breastfeeding.
Viral replication requires that reverse transcriptase (an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) copy HIV RNA, producing proviral DNA; this copying mechanism is prone to errors, resulting in frequent mutations and thus new HIV genotypes. These mutations facilitate the generation of HIV that can resist control by the host’s immune system and by antiretroviral drugs.
Another way to diagnose HIV infection is to do a special test to detect viral particles in the blood. These tests detect RNA, DNA, or viral antigens. However, these tests are more commonly used for guiding treatment rather than for diagnosis.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDs can cause a plethora of hematologic problems. Early on during HIV infection, immune thrombocytopenia is common as is the development of antiphospholipid antibodies. Anemia is the most common manifestation of HIV infection and is multifactorial due to both direct and indirect effects of the virus.12 Anemia is most often a hypoproliferative, low reticulocyte anemia due to anemia of chronic disease. Often, there is a blunted erythropoietin response. Coombs-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia also occurs with increased frequency in HIV infection. Antiretroviral therapy often causes macrocytosis.
45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1989) ‘Guidelines for Prophylaxis Against Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia for Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus’ MMWR Weekly 38(S-5):1-9
Higher viral loads in the source partner are associated with higher transmission rates; thus, because barrier contraception is imperfect (although by far the best method to prevent transmission), good control of viral load is important.
In June, the first reports of AIDS in children hinted that it could be passed via casual contact but this was later ruled out and it was concluded that they had probably directly acquired AIDS from their mothers before, during or shortly after birth.17
Mechanism of viral entry: 1. Initial interaction between gp120 and CD4. 2. Conformational change in gp120 allows for secondary interaction with CCR5. 3. The distal tips of gp41 are inserted into the cellular membrane. 4. gp41 undergoes significant conformational change; folding in half and forming coiled-coils. This process pulls the viral and cellular membranes together, fusing them.
Aaron Glatt, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physician Executives, American College of Physicians, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, American Thoracic Society, American Venereal Disease Association, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International AIDS Society, and Society forHealthcare Epidemiology of America
Another, less well-understood prognostic factor is the level of immune activation as determined by evaluating the expression of activation markers on CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. Activation, which may be caused by leakage of bacteria across the HIV-damaged colonic mucosa, is a strong prognostic predictor but is not used clinically because this test is not widely available and antiretroviral therapy changes the prognosis, making this test less important.
Acute HIV infection may be associated with symptoms resembling mononucleosis or the flu within 2 to 4 weeks of exposure. HIV seroconversion (converting from HIV negative to HIV positive) usually occurs within 3 months of exposure.
HIV-infected mothers can pass the virus through their breast milk. However, if the mother is taking the correct medications, the risk of transmitting the virus is greatly reduced. It is important for a new mother to discuss the options with a healthcare provider.
However, developing countries have not consistently used sensitive HIV screening tests and have not restricted donors. Consequently, transmission by these routes is still a problem in these countries.
After the virus enters a person’s lymph nodes during the acute retroviral syndrome stage, the disease becomes latent for 10 years or more before symptoms of advanced disease develop. During latency, the virus continues to replicate in the lymph nodes, where it may cause one or more of the following conditions: [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]