Weinhardt LS, Carey MP, Johnson BT, Bickham NL. Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985–1997. Am J Public Health 1999;89:1397–405. [PubMed] [Full Text] ⇦
Many governments and research institutions participate in HIV/AIDS research. This research includes behavioral health interventions such as sex education, and drug development, such as research into microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV vaccines, and antiretroviral drugs. Other medical research areas include the topics of pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis, and circumcision and HIV.
One way to measure the damage to your immune system is to count your CD4 cells you have. These cells, also called “T-helper” cells, are an important part of the immune system. Healthy people have between 500 and 1,500 CD4 cells in a milliliter of blood. Fact Sheet 124 has has more information on CD4 cells.
Lyell’s syndrome drug-induced, acute skin sensitivity reaction; characterized by acute erythema, urticaria, vasculitis, purpura, marked exfoliation (peeling), flaccid bullae formation, subepidermal separation/detachment
Genetic studies of a pandemic strain of HIV, known as HIV-1 group M, have indicated that the virus emerged between 1884 and 1924 in central and western Africa. Researchers estimate that that strain of the virus began spreading throughout those areas in the late 1950s. Later, in the mid-1960s, an evolved strain called HIV-1 group M subtype B spread from Africa to Haiti. In Haiti that subtype acquired unique characteristics, presumably through the process of genetic recombination. Sometime between 1969 and 1972, the virus migrated from Haiti to the United States. The virus spread within the United States for about a decade before it was discovered in the early 1980s. The worldwide spread of HIV-1 was likely facilitated by several factors, including increasing urbanization and long-distance travel in Africa, international travel, changing sexual mores, and intravenous drug use.
The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.
For primary prophylaxis against some fungal infections (eg, esophageal candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis or pneumonia), oral fluconazole 100 to 200 mg once/day or 400 mg weekly is successful but is infrequently used because the cost per infection prevented is high and diagnosis and treatment of these infections are usually successful.
Jump up ^ Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (August 1987). “Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings”. MMWR. 36 (Suppl 2): 1S–18S. PMID 3112554. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017.
AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals. Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.
^ Jump up to: a b Siegfried, Nandi; Irlam, James H.; Visser, Marianne E.; Rollins, Nigel N. (2012-03-14). “Micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV infection”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD009755. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009755. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 22419344.
HIV spread from person to person throughout Africa over the course of several decades. Eventually, the virus migrated to other parts of the world. Scientists first discovered HIV in a human blood sample in 1959.
People who are likely to come into contact with blood or other body fluids at their job should wear protective latex gloves, masks, and eye shields. These precautions apply to body fluids from all people, not just those from people with HIV, and are thus called universal precautions. Universal precautions are taken for two reasons:
^ Jump up to: a b Arthos J, Cicala C, Martinelli E, Macleod K, Van Ryk D, Wei D, Xiao Z, Veenstra TD, Conrad TP, RA, McLaughlin S, Pascuccio M, Gopaul R, McNally J, Cruz CC, Censoplano N, Chung E, Reitano KN, Kottilil S, Goode DJ, Fauci AS (2008). “HIV-1 envelope protein binds to and signals through integrin alpha(4)beta(7), the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells”. Nature Immunology. 9 (3): 301–9. doi:10.1038/ni1566. PMID 18264102.
The NIAID, The Division of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (DAIDS) has a requirement for advanced development and clinical evaluation of innovative anti-HIV therapeutic immune-based products that have antiviral properties or can elicit responses to destroy activated HIV reservoirs and persistent low level infection in subjects on suppressive antiretroviral drugs. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]