^ Jump up to: a b c d Dosekun O, Fox J (July 2010). “An overview of the relative risks of different sexual behaviours on HIV transmission”. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 5 (4): 291–7. doi:10.1097/COH.0b013e32833a88a3. PMID 20543603.
The opportunity for repeat testing should be made available to all women even in the absence of identified risk factors. Repeat screening after age 64 years is indicated if there is ongoing risk of HIV infection, as indicated by an individualized risk assessment. Obstetrician–gynecologists also should encourage women and their prospective sex partners to be tested before initiating a new sexual relationship. The benefits of periodic retesting should be discussed with patients and provided if requested, regardless of risk factors. Patients may be concerned about their status and do not know about or want to disclose risk-taking behavior to their health care providers.
With the use of antiretroviral therapy, chronic HIV can last several decades. Without treatment, HIV can be expected to progress to AIDS sooner. By that time, the immune system is quite damaged and has a hard time fighting off infection and disease.
Jump up ^ Klein, Joshua S.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Rall, Glenn F. (27 May 2010). “Few and Far Between: How HIV May Be Evading Antibody Avidity”. PLOS Pathogens. 6 (5): e1000908. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000908. PMC 2877745 . PMID 20523901.
The first HIV vaccine efficacy study in seven years is currently underway in South Africa. The experimental vaccine an updated version of one used in a 2009 trial that took place in Thailand. A 3.5-year follow up after vaccination showed the vaccine was 31.2 percent effective in preventing HIV infection. It’s the most successful HIV vaccine trial to date.
An immune deficiency disease occurs when the immune system is not working properly. If you are born with a deficiency or if there is a genetic cause, it is called primary immunodeficiency disease. There are more than 100 primary immunodeficiency disorders.
As patients near the end of life, clinicians may need to prescribe drugs to relieve pain, anorexia, agitation, and other distressing symptoms. The profound weight loss in many people during the last stages of AIDS makes good skin care difficult. The comprehensive support provided by hospice programs helps many patients because hospice providers are unusually skilled at symptom management, and they support caregivers and patient autonomy.
HIV attaches to and penetrates host T cells, then releases HIV RNA and enzymes into the host cell. HIV reverse transcriptase copies viral RNA as proviral DNA. Proviral DNA enters the host cell’s nucleus, and HIV integrase facilitates the proviral DNA’s integration into the host’s DNA. The host cell then produces HIV RNA and HIV proteins. HIV proteins are assembled into HIV virions and budded from the cell surface. HIV protease cleaves viral proteins, converting the immature virion to a mature, infectious virion.
Condoms made of latex provide good protection against HIV (as well as other common sexually transmitted diseases), but they are not foolproof. Oil-based lubricants (such as petroleum jelly) should not be used because they may dissolve latex, reducing the condom’s effectiveness.
Longo DL, et al., eds. Human immunodeficiency virus disease: AIDS and related disorders. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Dec. 15, 2017.
^ Jump up to: a b c Chan DC, Fass D, Berger JM, Kim PS (1997). “Core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein” (PDF). Cell. 89 (2): 263–73. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80205-6. PMID 9108481.
Protease is an enzyme that HIV needs to replicate. As the name suggests, protease inhibitors bind to the enzyme and inhibit its action, preventing HIV from making copies of itself. These include atazanavir/cobicistat (Evotaz), lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), and darunavir/cobicistat (Prezcobix).
Chou R, Smits AK, Huffman LH, Fu R, Korthuis PT. Prenatal screening for HIV: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:38–54.
The mission of AIDS.ORG is to help prevent HIV infections and to improve the lives of those affected by HIV and AIDS by providing education and facilitating the free and open exchange of knowledge at an easy-to-find centralized website. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]