Activated cells that become infected with HIV produce virus immediately and die within one or two days. The vast majority of viruses present in the plasma can be attributed to the short-lived, activated cells. It takes approximately 1.5 days to complete a single HIV life-cycle. Resting cells that become infected produce virus only after immune stimulation and these cells have a half-life of at least 5-6 months. Some cells are infected with defective virus that cannot complete the viral cycle. Such cells survive for a long period of time and have an estimated half-life of 3-6 months. (source: Virology-Online)
Circumcision seems to reduce the risk of males acquiring HIV infection by about 50% by removing the penile mucosa (underside of foreskin), which is more susceptible to HIV infection than the keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium that covers the rest of the penis.
If a pregnant woman with HIV infection does not take ART during pregnancy and goes into labor, medications are still given during labor. This reduces the risk of transmission of HIV. After delivery, the infant will be given medication(s) for at least six weeks to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV. If the mother did not take HAART during pregnancy or if the mother has a drug-resistant virus, infants will be treated with multiple medications. Infants are tested periodically in the first six months to ensure they have not acquired the virus.
An immune deficiency disease occurs when the immune system is not working properly. If you are born with a deficiency or if there is a genetic cause, it is called primary immunodeficiency disease. There are more than 100 primary immunodeficiency disorders.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV destroys the body’s immune system and eventually leads to AIDS. People with AIDS develop many diseases and “opportunistic” infections (such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, cancer, and skin infections) that may ultimately lead to death. Prevention is critical. There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but currently, there are effective treatments that can drastically slow the disease process. If you have been exposed to the HIV virus in any number of ways, you can very easily be tested to determine whether or not you have been infected with the virus.
Many governments and research institutions participate in HIV/AIDS research. This research includes behavioral health interventions, such as research into sex education, and drug development, such as research into microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV vaccines, and anti-retroviral drugs. Other medical research areas include the topics of pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis, circumcision and HIV, and accelerated aging effects.
HIV strains in several compartments, such as the nervous system (brain and CSF) and genital tract (semen), can be genetically distinct from those in plasma, suggesting that they have been selected by or have adapted to these anatomic compartments. Thus, HIV levels and resistance patterns in these compartments may vary independently from those in plasma.
It is transmitted when this female anopheles mosquito bites a infected person and ingests the parasite which grows in its body. When this mosquito bites another healthy person, the parasite is transferred and the person gets infected. These parasites now travels to the person’s liver where they grow and multiply, eventually causing the blood cell to burst open, releasing the parasite throughout the blood stream. Symptoms mock those of the flu and include chills, headaches, muscle aches, and fatigue. Jaundice and anaemia may follow. Individuals may begin experiencing symptoms a little over a week up until a month after infection.
Ng M, Gakidou E, Levin-Rector A, Khera A, Murray CJ, Dandona L. Assessment of population-level effect of Avahan, an HIV-prevention initiative in India. Lancet. 2011 Nov 5. 378(9803):1643-52. [Medline].
Oral PrEP of HIV is the daily use of ARV drugs by HIV-negative people to block the acquisition of HIV. More than 10 randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of PrEP in reducing HIV transmission among a range of populations including serodiscordant heterosexual couples (where one partner is infected and the other is not), men who have sex with men, transgender women, high-risk heterosexual couples, and people who inject drugs.
During all stages of infection, literally billions of HIV particles (copies) are produced every day and circulate in the blood. This production of virus is associated with a decline (at an inconsistent rate) in the number of CD4 cells in the blood over the ensuing years. Although the precise mechanism by which HIV infection results in CD4 cell decline is not known, it probably results from a direct effect of the virus on the cell as well as the body’s attempt to clear these infected cells from the system. In addition to virus in the blood, there is also virus throughout the body, especially in the lymph nodes, brain, and genital secretions.
Specific adverse events are related to the antiretroviral agent taken. Some relatively common adverse events include: lipodystrophy syndrome, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, especially with protease inhibitors. Other common symptoms include diarrhea, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Newer recommended treatments are associated with fewer adverse effects. Certain medications may be associated with birth defects and therefore may be unsuitable for women hoping to have children.
Entry (fusion) inhibitors prevent HIV from entering cells. To enter a human cell, HIV must bind to a CD4 receptor and one other receptor, such as the CCR-5 receptor. One type of entry inhibitor, CCR-5 inhibitors, blocks the CCR-5 receptor, preventing HIV from entering human cells.
The basis of management is described in the separate article Human Immunideficiency Virus (HIV). There may be defining conditions such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia that will need treatment. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis enormously in terms of duration of survival but premature death is to be expected.
CD4 count < 50/μL: Prophylaxis against disseminated MAC consists of azithromycin or clarithromycin; if neither of these drugs is tolerated, rifabutin can be used. Azithromycin can be given weekly as two 600-mg tablets; it provides protection (70%) similar to daily clarithromycin and does not interact with other drugs. Black Africans have traditionally been over-represented in this category. However, recent research suggests that up to a fifth of HIV infections among black African men initially classified as 'heterosexual exposure' in the UK are likely to have been acquired as a result of sex with other men. A small group of individuals continue to dispute the connection between HIV and AIDS, the existence of HIV itself, or the validity of HIV testing and treatment methods. These claims, known as AIDS denialism, have been examined and rejected by the scientific community. However, they have had a significant political impact, particularly in South Africa, where the government's official embrace of AIDS denialism (1999–2005) was responsible for its ineffective response to that country's AIDS epidemic, and has been blamed for hundreds of thousands of avoidable deaths and HIV infections. The crisis is most acute in Southern states, which hold 37 percent of the country’s population and as of 2014 accounted for 54 percent of all new H.I.V. diagnoses. The South is also home to 21 of the 25 metropolitan areas with the highest H.I.V. prevalence among gay and bisexual men. Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, the country’s poorest state, is best known for blues, barbecue and “The Help.” It also has the nation’s highest rate — 40 percent — of gay and bisexual men living with H.I.V., followed by Columbia, S.C.; El Paso; Augusta, Ga.; and Baton Rouge, La. In Jackson, a small city of just over 170,000, half a dozen black gay or bisexual men receive the shock of a diagnosis every month, and more than 3,600 people, the majority of them black men, live with the virus. A single case report detailed a possible cure resulting from stem-cell transplantation from a CCR5-delta32 homozygous donor (performed to treat acute myelocytic leukemia). Although this important finding is unlikely to impact routine management of HIV infection, it does suggest that reconstitution of a host immune system with a population of mutant cells is a possible avenue of research to explore.  HIV differs from many viruses in that it has very high genetic variability. This diversity is a result of its fast replication cycle, with the generation of about 1010 virions every day, coupled with a high mutation rate of approximately 3 x 10−5 per nucleotide base per cycle of replication and recombinogenic properties of reverse transcriptase. A blood test for HIV looks for these antibodies. If you have them in your blood, it means that you have HIV infection. People who have the HIV antibodies are called “HIV-Positive.” Fact Sheet 102 has more information on HIV testing. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to asymptomatic HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection. Later, it progresses to AIDS (very advanced HIV infection with T-cell count below 200). There is no cure for AIDS at this time. However, several treatments are available that can delay the progression of disease for many years and improve the quality of life of those who have developed symptoms. Jump up ^ Koot M, van 't Wout AB, Kootstra NA, de Goede RE, Tersmette M, Schuitemaker H (1996). "Relation between changes in cellular load, evolution of viral phenotype, and the clonal composition of virus populations in the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 173 (2): 349–54. doi:10.1093/infdis/173.2.349. PMID 8568295. "If you're already losing weight, that means the immune system is usually fairly depleted," Dr. Malvestutto says. "This is the patient who has lost a lot of weight even if they continue to eat as much as possible. This is late presentation. We still see a lot of these." It has become less common, however, thanks to antiretroviral therapy. Sleep is very important for a healthy immune system. According to the Mayo Clinic, adults need about eight hours of sleep per night. It’s also important that you stay away from people who are sick if your immune system isn’t working properly. One of the greatest advances in the management of HIV infection has been in pregnant women. Prior to antiviral therapy, the risk of HIV transmission from an infected mother to her newborn was approximately 25%-35%. The first major advance in this area came with studies giving ZDV after the first trimester of pregnancy, then intravenously during the delivery process, and then after delivery to the newborn for six weeks. This treatment showed a reduction in the risk of transmission to less than 10%. There is strong data that women who have viral suppression during pregnancy have very low risk of transmitting HIV to their baby. Current recommendations are to advise HIV-infected pregnant women regarding both the unknown side effects of antiviral therapy on the fetus and the promising clinical experience with potent therapy in preventing transmission. In the final analysis, however, pregnant women with HIV should be treated essentially the same as nonpregnant women with HIV. Exceptions would be during the first trimester, where therapy remains controversial, and avoiding certain drugs that may cause greater concern for fetal toxicity, such as EFV. This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information". Jump up ^ Pennsylvania, Editors, Raphael Rubin, M.D., Professor of Pathology, David S. Strayer, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ; Founder and Consulting Editor, Emanuel Rubin, M.D., Gonzalo Aponte Distinguished Professor of Pathology, Chairman Emeritus of the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, (2011). Rubin's pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine (Sixth ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-60547-968-2. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness of breath, and chills. Antibiotics treat pneumonia, and the choice of the antibiotic depends upon the cause of the infection. The vast majority of infections remain in sub-Saharan Africa, where 5.2% of the population is thought to be infected. Between 2004 and 2006, the prevalence of HIV infection in central and eastern Asia and Eastern Europe increased by 21%. During this period, the number of new HIV infections in persons aged 15 to 64 years rose by 70% in Eastern Europe and central Asia. Jump up ^ Kirby DB, Laris BA, Rolleri LA (March 2007). "Sex and HIV education programs: their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world". J Adolesc Health. 40 (3): 206–17. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.11.143. PMID 17321420. Given the advances in research, information and treatment, it seems inconceivable that someone living with the virus today, like Jordon, could look as if he had stepped out of the early years of the epidemic. And yet a series of fateful decisions and omissions, dating back to the discovery of the disease, have led to a present that looks like the past — but only for some. A previous estimate¶ of diagnosis delays among persons who received a diagnosis of HIV infection in 2011 indicated that half had been infected for 3.6 years. The median diagnosis delay of 3.0 years among HIV diagnoses in 2015 reflects an absolute reduction of 0.6 years (7 months) and a relative reduction of 17%, representing a considerable decrease over a 4-year period (8). Earlier detection of HIV combined with prompt linkage to care and initiation of antiretroviral treatment enhances preservation of immune function and, if viral suppression is achieved and maintained, reduces risk for sexual transmission of HIV (4). In addition, persons who know they have HIV infection substantially reduce their HIV-related risk behaviors: the prevalence of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse was found to be 53% lower among persons aware of their HIV status than among those who were unaware of their status (17). Richman, Douglas D., David M. Margolis, Martin Delaney, Warner C. Greene, Daria Hazuda, Roger J. Pomerantz. "The Challenge of Finding a Cure for HIV Infection." Science 323.5919 Mar. 6, 2009: 1304-1307. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']