There are two types of HIV viruses, both resulting in forms of AIDS which are indistinguishable from each other. In addition to the two major types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. The genetic composition of these different types distinguishes one from the other.
Jump up ^ Underhill K, Operario D, Montgomery P (2008). Operario, Don, ed. “Abstinence-only programs for HIV infection prevention in high-income countries”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005421. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005421.pub2. PMID 17943855. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010.
During the latent period, the virus continues to multiply actively. It infects and kills critical infection fighting cells, a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells or T helper cells (T cells). Even though the person has no symptoms, he or she is contagious and can pass HIV to others through the routes described above. At the end of this phase, as the virus overwhelms the CD4 cells, the HIV viral load starts to rise, and the CD4 cell count begins to drop. As this happens, the person may begin to have symptoms as the virus levels increase in the body. This is stage 3.
Human herpesvirus 8 infection, which causes Kaposi sarcoma, is common among homosexual and bisexual men but uncommon among other HIV patients in the US and Europe. Thus, in the US, > 90% of AIDS patients who have developed Kaposi sarcoma are homosexual or bisexual men.
In April 1984, the National Cancer Institute announced they had found the cause of AIDS, the retrovirus HTLV-III. In a joint conference with the Pasteur Institute they announced that LAV and HTLV-III are identical and the likely cause of AIDS.22 A blood test was created to screen for the virus with the hope that a vaccine would be developed in two years.23
Iliotibial band Lie on a bench on the unaffected side, with the unaffected hip and knee slightly flexed, in order to maintain balance; flex the affected hip and straighten the affected knee so that the affected leg hangs off the bench; allow the iliotibial band of the affected leg to be stretched by gravitational pull
Mandell, Gerald L.; Bennett, John E.; Dolin, Raphael, eds. (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
If, on balance, a breach of confidence is deemed necessary, practitioners should work in advance to anticipate and manage potentially negative consequences (ie, reactions of intimate partners, family). As well, practitioners should consider whether the goal of maintaining patient privacy would be better served by personal communication with the individual placed at risk by the patient’s seropositivity or by notification of local public health authorities. In some areas, anonymous notification of sexual contacts is possible through local or state departments of health. As a practical matter, because disclosure is only possible when the index case freely identifies at-risk partners, superseding an individual’s refusal to disclose should be a rare occurrence.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS.
Moyer VA; US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(1):51-60. PMID: 23698354 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698354.
A new (fourth-generation) ELISA test can test for both HIV antibodies and the p24 antigen simultaneously. Thus, people can find out as early as 14 days after being exposed to HIV whether they are infected. However, because this test is expensive and requires special equipment, it is not available at every facility.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adults and adolescents: recommendations for a public health approach (PDF). World Health Organization. 2010. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-92-4-159976-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 9, 2012.
By Steven Reinberg HealthDay Reporter THURSDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) — People with HIV can reduce the risk of infecting their sex partners by more than 90 percent if they start treatment with antiretroviral drugs when their immune system is still relatively healthy, researchers announced Thursday. The study, which included 1,763 mostly heterosexual couples from […]
Additional precautions – people living with AIDS should be extra cautious to prevent exposure to infection. They should be careful around animals and avoid coming into contact with cat litter, animal feces, and birds, too. Meticulous and regular washing of hands is recommended. These precautions are not as necessary while taking therapy.
AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with ensuing compromise of the body’s immune system. Features include deficiency of certain types of leukocytes, especially T cells; infection with opportunistic infections that take advantage of the impaired immune response, such as tuberculosis, bacterial pneumonia, human herpes virus, or toxoplasmosis; certain types of cancer, particularly Kaposi sarcoma; inability to maintain body weight (wasting); and in advanced cases, AIDS dementia complex. Treatment for AIDS has advanced rapidly. Antiviral, antibacterial, and immune-boosting medications, among other treatments, are part of current treatment protocols.
Gulick RM. Antiretroviral therapy of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 388.
Jump up ^ Sharp, P. M.; Bailes, E.; Chaudhuri, R. R.; Rodenburg, C. M.; Santiago, M. O.; Hahn, B. H. (2001). “The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 356 (1410): 867–76. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0863. PMC 1088480 . PMID 11405934. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011.
[Guideline] Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. October 17, 2017. [Full Text].
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that most likely mutated decades ago from a virus that infected chimpanzees to one that infects humans. It began to spread beyond the African continent in the late 1970s and is now endemic worldwide. HIV causes disease because it attacks critical immune defense cells and over time overwhelms the immune system. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]