These studies show that most of the HIV present in the circulation of an infected individual is the product of rounds of replication in newly infected cells, and that virus from these productively infected cells is released into, and rapidly cleared from, the circulation at the rate of 109 to 1010 virions every day. This raises the question of what is happening to these virus particles: how are they removed so rapidly from the circulation? It seems most likely that HIV particles are opsonized by specific antibody and complement and removed by phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Opsonized HIV particles can also be trapped on the surface of follicular dendritic cells, which are known to capture antigen:antibody complexes and retain them for prolonged periods (see Chapters 9 and 10).
There are three dominant mechanisms for the loss of CD4 T cells in HIV infection. First, there is evidence for direct viral killing of infected cells; second, there is increased susceptibility to the induction of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, there is killing of infected CD4 T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize viral peptides.
Since the Bergalis case, many U.S. dentists, physicians, and surgeons with AIDS have begun disclosing their status to their patients. Faya v. Almaraz, 329 Md. 435, 620 A.2d 327 (Md. 1993), illustrates the consequences of not doing so. In Faya, the court held that an HIV-positive doctor has the legal duty to disclose this medical condition to patients and that a failure to inform can lead to a Negligence action, even if the patients have not been infected by the virus. The doctor’s patient did not contract HIV but did suffer emotionally from a fear of having done so. The unanimous decision held that patients can be compensated for their fears. Although this case dealt specifically with doctor-patient relationships, others have concerned a variety of relationships in which the fear of contracting AIDS can be enough for a plaintiff to recover damages.
Jump up ^ McGovern SL, Caselli E, Grigorieff N, Shoichet BK (2002). “A common mechanism underlying promiscuous inhibitors from virtual and high-throughput screening”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (8): 1712–22. doi:10.1021/jm010533y. PMID 11931626.
AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals. Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.
Jump up ^ Sanders, Rogier W.; Derking, Ronald; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Yasmeen, Anila; de Val, Natalia; Kim, Helen J.; Blattner, Claudia; de la Peña, Alba Torrents (2013-09-01). “A next-generation cleaved, soluble HIV-1 Env trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, expresses multiple epitopes for broadly neutralizing but not non-neutralizing antibodies”. PLOS Pathogens. 9 (9): e1003618. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003618. ISSN 1553-7374. PMC 3777863 . PMID 24068931.
There may be some value in providing prophylactic treatment. A Cochrane review found some benefit in treating latent tuberculosis.Another review found only one trial that examined the benefit of prophylactic co-trimoxazole in children. It was from Zambia and the result was positive.Prophylactic co-trimoxazole was subsequently endorsed as official WHO policy for exposed infants. However, this guidance has been the subject of controversy and its benefits have been questioned by several subsequent trials.The value of prophylaxis against oropharyngeal candidiasis is uncertain, especially in children. There may be some benefit but at a risk of resistance developing and for poorer countries the cheaper options should be examined.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Zhang C, Zhou S, Groppelli E, P, Williams I, Borrow P, Chain BM, Jolly C (2015). “Hybrid Spreading Mechanisms and T Cell Activation Shape the Dynamics of HIV-1 Infection”. PLOS Computational Biology. 11 (4): e1004179. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004179. PMC 4383537 . PMID 25837979.
HIV-1 is the most common and pathogenic strain of the virus. Scientists divide HIV-1 into a major group (Group M) and two or more minor groups, namely Group N, O and possibly a group P. Each group is believed to represent an independent transmission of SIV into humans (but subtypes within a group are not). A total of 39 ORFs are found in all six possible reading frames (RFs) of HIV-1 complete genome sequence, but only a few of them are functional.
Other tests can detect antibodies in body fluids other than blood, such as saliva, urine, and vaginal secretions. Some of these are designed to be rapid HIV tests that produce results in approximately 20 minutes. These tests have accuracy rates similar to traditional blood tests. OraQuick is an at-home test that uses an oral swab to detect HIV antibodies in oral fluid. Clearview is another rapid HIV test that can detect HIV antibodies in blood or plasma. HIV home-testing kits are available at many local drugstores. Blood is obtained by a finger prick and blotted on a filter strip. Other test kits use saliva or urine. The filter strip is mailed in a protective envelope to a laboratory to be tested. Results are returned by mail within one to two weeks.
The two Tat proteins (p16 and p14) are transcriptional transactivators for the LTR promoter acting by binding the TAR RNA element. The TAR may also be processed into microRNAs that regulate the apoptosis genes ERCC1 and IER3. The Rev protein (p19) is involved in shuttling RNAs from the nucleus and the cytoplasm by binding to the RRE RNA element. The Vif protein (p23) prevents the action of APOBEC3G (a cellular protein that deaminates Cytidine to Uridine in the single stranded viral DNA and/or interferes with reverse transcription). The Vpr protein (p14) arrests cell division at G2/M. The Nef protein (p27) down-regulates CD4 (the major viral receptor), as well as the MHC class I and class II molecules. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]