Jump up ^ Plantier JC, Leoz M, Dickerson JE, De Oliveira F, Cordonnier F, Lemée V, Damond F, Robertson DL, Simon F (August 2009). “A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas”. Nature Medicine. 15 (8): 871–2. doi:10.1038/nm.2016. PMID 19648927.
CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2015. HIV Surveillance Report, vol. 27. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-report-2015-vol-27.pdf
…highest rate of HIV and AIDS infection of any country in Asia. Aggressive programs launched by the government to promote safe sex practices, however, have reduced the rate of increase in new HIV infections significantly. Nonetheless, AIDS has continued to claim the lives of several tens of thousands of people…
“If you’re already losing weight, that means the immune system is usually fairly depleted,” Dr. Malvestutto says. “This is the patient who has lost a lot of weight even if they continue to eat as much as possible. This is late presentation. We still see a lot of these.” It has become less common, however, thanks to antiretroviral therapy.
It has no cure, since decades ago. Use all preventive measures to stay away from it. Because you have family, and dreams to achieve. So please, please, stay away from it. ”A himt to a wise is quite sufficient”
Persons unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are estimated to account for approximately 40% of ongoing transmissions in the United States (1). As a result of increased testing, the percentage of persons living with HIV who are aware of their infection has steadily increased; at the end of 2014, estimated 85% of persons living with HIV were aware of their infection, approaching the national goal of 90% by 2020 (2). Persons aware of their HIV infection reduce their transmission risk behaviors and can enter HIV care and take antiretroviral treatment to achieve viral suppression (a viral load result of <200 copies/mL, or undetectable levels) (3). Viral suppression not only preserves immune function, decreasing a person’s risk for morbidity and mortality, but also profoundly reduces risk for sexual transmission to others (4–6). Early detection of HIV infection maximizes these benefits. McCormack S, Ramjee G, Kamali A, et al. PRO2000 vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection (Microbicides Development Programme 301): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Lancet. 2010 Oct 16. 376(9749):1329-37. [Medline]. [Full Text]. [Guideline] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion no: 635: prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: expanded recommendations. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun. 125 (6):1544-7. [Medline]. Awareness of modes of transmission is very important, as the key to tackling this disease lies less in treating it than in preventing its spread. The relative importance of the various means of transmission varies considerably from country to country and even within countries. The following is derived from UK sources. Protease inhibitors (PIs) interrupt virus replication at a later step in the HIV life cycle, preventing cells from producing new viruses. Currently, these include ritonavir (Norvir), darunavir (Prezista), and atazanavir (Reyataz). Using PIs with NRTIs reduces the chances that the virus will become resistant to medications. Atazanavir and darunavir are available in combination with cobicistat as atazanavir/cobicistat (Evotaz) and darunavir/cobicistat (Prezcobix). Cobicistat and ritonavir inhibit the breakdown of other drugs, so they are used as boosters to reduce the number of pills needed. A combination of these drugs will be used; the exact mix of drugs is adapted to each individual. HIV treatment is usually permanent and lifelong. HIV treatment is based on routine dosage. Pills must be taken on a regular schedule, every time. Each class of ARVs has different side effects, but some possible common side effects include: Ohl ME, Perencevich E. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in urban vs. rural areas of the United States: results from a nationally representative sample. BMC Public Health 2011;11:681. CrossRef PubMed This has been true of even the most recent advances. In 2010, the Obama administration unveiled the first National H.I.V./AIDS Strategy, an ambitious plan that prioritized government research and resources to so-called key populations, including black men and women, gay and bisexual men, transgender women and people living in the South. With a mandate to “follow the epidemic,” several pharmaceutical companies and philanthropic organizations also started projects to help gay black men, particularly in the Southern states. That same year, the Affordable Care Act and later the expansion of Medicaid in more than half of the country’s states linked significantly more H.I.V.-positive Americans to lifesaving treatment and care. Jump up ^ Carr JK, Foley BT, Leitner T, Salminen M, Korber B, McCutchan F (1998). "Reference sequences representing the principal genetic diversity of HIV-1 in the pandemic" (PDF). In Los Alamos National Laboratory. HIV sequence compendium. Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos National Laboratory. pp. 10–19. Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, Emmanuel P, Zingman BS, Horberg MA. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 13. [Medline]. HIV is carried in semen (cum), vaginal fluids, blood, and breast milk. The virus gets in your body through cuts or sores in your skin, and through mucous membranes (like the inside of the vagina, rectum, and opening of the penis). You can get HIV from: Eukaryotic cells have mechanisms to prevent the export from the cell nucleus of incompletely spliced mRNA transcripts. This could pose a problem for a retrovirus that is dependent on the export of unspliced, singly spliced, and multiply spliced mRNA species in order to translate the full complement of viral proteins. The Rev protein is the viral solution to this problem. Export from the nucleus and translation of the three HIV proteins encoded by the fully spliced mRNA transcripts, Tat, Nef, and Rev, occurs early after viral infection by means of the normal host cellular mechanisms of mRNA export. The expressed Rev protein then enters the nucleus and binds to a specific viral RNA sequence, the Rev response element (RRE). Rev also binds to a host nucleocytoplasmic transport protein named Crm1, which engages a host pathway for exporting mRNA species through nuclear pores into the cytoplasm. HIV is not spread by coughing, sneezing, or casual contact (e.g., shaking hands). HIV is fragile and cannot survive long outside the body. Therefore, direct transfer of bodily fluids is required for transmission. Other sexually transmitted diseases, such as syphilis, genital herpes, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, increase the risk of contracting HIV through sexual contact, probably through the genital lesions that they cause. The virus that causes AIDS, which is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. HIV is a retrovirus that occurs as two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both types are transmitted through direct contact with HIV-infected body fluids, such as blood, semen, and genital secretions, or from an HIV-infected mother to her child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding (through breast milk). Treatment with HAART is not without complications. HAART is a collection of different medications, each with its own side effect profile. Some common side effects are nausea, headache, weakness, malaise, and fat accumulation on your back and abdomen ("buffalo hump," lipodystrophy). When used long-term, these medications may increase the risk of heart attack by affecting fat metabolism. In January 1995, the settlement in a lawsuit brought by a Philadelphia construction worker with AIDS illustrated that the ADA could be used to fight caps on coverage. In 1992, the joint union-management fund for the Laborers' District Council placed a $10,000 limit on AIDS benefits, in stark contrast to the $100,000 allowed for other catastrophic illnesses. At that time, the fund said the cap on AIDS benefits was designed to curb all health costs. In 1993, the EEOC ruled that the fund violated the ADA, and, backed by the AIDS Law Project of Philadelphia, the worker sued. Rather than fight an expensive lawsuit, the insurance fund settled: under the agreement, it extended coverage for all catastrophic illnesses to $100,000. Hailing the settlement as a major blow against widespread discrimination in insurance coverage, the law project's executive director, Nan Feyler, told the Philadelphia Inquirer, "You can't single out someone based on a stereotype." This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder. Testing for HIV is a two-step process involving a screening test and a confirmatory test. The first step is usually a screening test that looks for antibodies against the HIV. Specimens for testing come from blood obtained from a vein or a finger stick, an oral swab, or a urine sample. Results can come back in minutes (rapid tests) or can take several days, depending on the method that is used. If the screening HIV test is positive, the results are confirmed by a special test called a Western blot or indirect immunofluorescence assay test. A Western blot detects antibodies to specific components of the virus. The confirmatory test is necessary because the screening test is less accurate and occasionally will be positive in those who do not have HIV. Jump up ^ Gallo, MF; Kilbourne-Brook, M; Coffey, PS (March 2012). "A review of the effectiveness and acceptability of the female condom for dual protection". Sexual health. 9 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1071/SH11037. PMID 22348629. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']