Jump up ^ Gottlieb MS (2006). “Pneumocystis pneumonia—Los Angeles. 1981”. American Journal of Public Health. 96 (6): 980–1; discussion 982–3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.96.6.980. PMC 1470612 . PMID 16714472. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009.
Jump up ^ Feng Y, Broder CC, Kennedy PE, Berger EA (1996). “HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor”. Science. 272 (5263): 872–7. Bibcode:1996Sci…272..872F. doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.872. PMID 8629022.
HIV is probably directly responsible for a substantial loss of weight (AIDS wasting) in some people. Wasting in people with AIDS may also be caused by a series of infections or by an untreated, persistent digestive tract infection.
RNA testing (viral load test) detects HIV RNA in the blood. It is not commonly used for screening but can be helpful in detecting early HIV infection when a person is in the window period or if the screening tests are unclear.
Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. Rockville (MD): Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. Available at: http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/PerinatalGL.pdf. Retrieved December 12, 2013. ⇦
Regular blood tests are needed to make sure the virus level in the blood (viral load) is kept low, or suppressed. The goal of treatment is to lower the HIV virus in the blood to a level that is so low that the test can’t detect it. This is called an undetectable viral load.
Pakker NG, Notermans DW, de Boer RJ, et al. Biphasic kinetics of peripheral blood T cells after triple combination therapy in HIV-1 infection: a composite of redistribution and proliferation. Nat Med. 1998 Feb. 4(2):208-14. [Medline].
In patients with HIV infection, certain syndromes are common and may require different considerations (see Table: Common Manifestations of HIV Infection by Organ System). Some patients present with cancers (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, B-cell lymphomas) that occur more frequently, are unusually severe, or have unique features in patients with HIV infection (see Cancers Common in HIV-Infected Patients). In other patients, neurologic dysfunction may occur.
There are no documented cases of HIV being transmitted by tears or saliva, but it is possible to be infected with HIV through oral sex or in rare cases through deep kissing, especially if you have open sores in your mouth or bleeding gums. For more information, see the following Fact Sheets:
Jump up ^ Haedicke J, Brown C, Naghavi MH (Aug 2009). “The brain-specific factor FEZ1 is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to HIV-1 infection”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (33): 14040–14045. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10614040H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900502106. PMC 2729016 . PMID 19667186.
Understanding the risk of body tattooing or any body piercing. The risk of being infected with HIV through these practices is lower than for hepatitis B or hepatitis C, but there is still a risk if there is use of unsterile equipment or re-used dyes.
During this time, many scientists, researchers and government administrators were afraid to speak openly about condoms, needle exchange and L.G.B.T. issues for fear of reprisal and loss of funding. Community organizations became targets of anti-gay crusades, subjected to intense scrutiny, including exhaustive audits, by federal agencies. “It is no coincidence that new rates of H.I.V. infection among gay men, especially gay black men, began to spike sharply from 2000 on, because of an anti-science campaign that allowed for little or nothing to be done for a maligned community simply due to ideology and bigotry,” Millett said. “The hostile environment made funding effective H.I.V.-prevention programs, messages or research impossible for U.S. communities most impacted by H.I.V.”
^ Jump up to: a b c Zheng YH, Lovsin N, Peterlin BM (2005). “Newly identified host factors modulate HIV replication”. Immunology Letters. 97 (2): 225–34. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.11.026. PMID 15752562.
The training and qualifications of providers treating patients with HIV/AIDS is very important. But equally important is an understanding of the impact of numbers of patients treated by providers on key medical outcomes (e.g. viral load measures, mortality, the receipt of anti‐retroviral medications, opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis as well as economic outcomes such as health care utilization or patient costs) in the care of persons living with HIV/AIDS. This systematic review examined studies from 1980‐2009 that identified both provider experience/qualifications as well as a volumes indicator (number of HIV/AIDS patients). Only four studies met the inclusion criteria for the final review. Given the varied methods of each study, a meta‐analysis was not possible.
Having HIV does not always mean that you have AIDS. It can take many years for people with the virus to develop AIDS. HIV and AIDS cannot be cured. However with the medications available today, it is possible to have a normal lifespan with little or minimal interruption in quality of life. There are ways to help people stay healthy and live longer.
Jump up ^ Thomson MM, Pérez-Alvarez L, Nájera R (2002). “Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 genetic forms and its significance for vaccine development and therapy”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2 (8): 461–471. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00343-2. PMID 12150845.
According to a report from Public Health England (PHE), there were an estimated 100,000 adults aged 15-59 living with HIV in the UK in 2012, 22% of whom were unaware of their infection. The number of deaths among HIV-infected people has continued to decline since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and a total of 490 people infected with HIV were reported to have died in 2012. There were 6,360 new diagnoses in 2012 in the UK. New diagnoses in men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to rise. This reflects both an ongoing high level of transmission and an increase in the number of men coming forward for testing.
Jump up ^ Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vézinet-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W, Montagnier L (1983). “Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)”. Science. 220 (4599): 868–871. Bibcode:1983Sci…220..868B. doi:10.1126/science.6189183. PMID 6189183.
influenza virus any of a group of orthomyxoviruses that cause influenza; there are at least three serotypes or species (A, B, and C). Serotype A viruses are subject to major antigenic changes (antigenic shifts) as well as minor gradual antigenic changes (antigenic drift) and cause widespread epidemics and pandemics. Serotypes B and C are chiefly associated with sporadic epidemics.
Lyell’s syndrome drug-induced, acute skin sensitivity reaction; characterized by acute erythema, urticaria, purpura, marked exfoliation (peeling), flaccid bullae formation, subepidermal separation/detachment
Activated cells that become infected with HIV produce virus immediately and die within one or two days. The vast majority of viruses present in the plasma can be attributed to the short-lived, activated cells. It takes approximately 1.5 days to complete a single HIV life-cycle. Resting cells that become infected produce virus only after immune stimulation and these cells have a half-life of at least 5-6 months. Some cells are infected with defective virus that cannot complete the viral cycle. Such cells survive for a long period of time and have an estimated half-life of 3-6 months. (source: Virology-Online)
Body fluid exposure – exposure to HIV can be controlled by employing precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood. Healthcare workers should use barriers (gloves, masks, protective eyewear, shields, and gowns) in the appropriate circumstances. Frequent and thorough washing of the skin immediately after coming into contact with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of infection.
vaccinia virus a species of orthopoxvirus that does not occur in nature and has been propagated for many years only in the laboratory for use as an active vaccine against smallpox. The present virus is derived from the original one used by Jenner, obtained from the lesions of cowpox, but the origin of the original virus remains unclear.
Side effects of combinations of antiretroviral drugs may be unpleasant and serious. However, doctors can prevent many serious problems (such as anemia, hepatitis, kidney problems, and pancreatitis) by regularly examining the person and doing blood tests. The blood tests can detect side effects before they become serious and enable doctors to change antiretroviral drugs when needed. For most people, doctors can find a combination of drugs with minimal side effects.
Although viral load and turnover are usually measured by detecting the viral RNA present in viral particles in the blood, the major reservoir of HIV infection is in lymphoid tissue, in which infected CD4 T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells are found. In addition, HIV is trapped in the form of immune complexes on the surface of follicular dendritic cells. These cells are not themselves infected but may act as a store of infective virions.
AIDS in the Workplace The workplace is a common battleground. Many people with AIDS have lost their jobs, been denied promotions, or been reassigned to work duties that remove them from public contact. During the 1980s, this discrimination was fought through lawsuits based on older laws designed to protect the disabled. Plaintiffs primarily used the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C.A. § 701 et seq.), the earliest law of this type. But the Rehabilitation Act has a limited scope: it applies only to federally funded workplaces and institutions; it says nothing about those that do not receive government money. Thus, for example, the law was helpful to a California public school teacher with AIDS who sued for the right to resume teaching classes (Chalk v. United States District Court, 840 F.2d 701 [9th Cir. 1988]), but it would be of no use to a worker in a private business.
The eradication of AIDS is based on prevention rather than cure: this means education and action. Education promotes the use of barrier contraception and advises against risk-taking behaviour – eg, multiple sexual partners or IDU. However, education can be problematic when a respected body like the Roman Catholic Church appears to dispute the risks. The Church considers that condoms are a sin against nature and that AIDS prevention would be better focused on reducing illicit sex and promoting monogamy. However, there has for some time been a move within the church to differentiate between the use of condoms for contraception and their use for AIDS prevention. There are signs that Pope Francis may introduce a less inflexible approach and is at the time of publication planning a Synod to consider this and other controversial issues.
In 2010, the iPrEx study reported the results of the first large study testing the effectiveness of PrEP using orally administered therapy, as opposed to topical agents as in the vaginal PrEP studies. In this study, HIV-uninfected men who had sex with men who took TDF/FTC once daily along with a comprehensive program to promote safe-sex practices and early treatment of sexually transmitted diseases experienced a markedly reduced risk of acquiring HIV compared with those receiving similar prevention practice without TDF/FTC. There are several other studies that have shown that once daily TDF or TDF/FTC have been effective for PrEP in heterosexual men, women, and intravenous drug users. Nevertheless, there are other studies of high-risk HIV-uninfected women that have shown no benefit, with convincing data in both studies demonstrating extremely low levels of treatment adherence with study medications. Based upon the data available, the United States FDA has approved TDF/FTC for use in high-risk HIV-uninfected individuals. When this therapy is utilized, it is clear that people need to be extensively counseled regarding the importance of continued use of condoms as well as diligent screening for HIV infection, acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as treatment adherence. Treated individuals also need to be made aware of potential side effects of treatment, including gastrointestinal symptoms, kidney damage, and decreases in bone mineral density.
The typical course of untreated infection with HIV. The first few weeks are typified by an acute influenza-like viral illness, sometimes called seroconversion disease, with high titers of virus in the blood. An adaptive immune response follows, which controls (more…)
Painful rash at the injection site and allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions (including rash, fever, chills, nausea, and low blood pressure), numbness and tingling in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy), insomnia, and loss of appetite
Nowhere are the two sides more split than on the issue of condoms. Schools in at least 23 cities sought to distribute condoms during the mid-to late-1990s. The assumption was that since students will have sex anyway—despite warnings not to—they had better be protected. Conservatives see this position as a cop-out in two ways: it sells values short and it undermines parental authority. In 1992, in Washington, D.C., critics erupted over a decision by the Public Health Commission to hand out condoms in junior and senior high schools without parental consent. William Brown, president of the D.C. Congress of Parents and Teachers, complained: “We are looking to build and reinforce and establish family values where they have been lost, and here we have an agency of our government that totally ignores those things we are working for.” Dr. Mary Ellen Bradshaw, the commission’s chief, replied: “Our whole focus is to save the lives of these children, stressing abstinence as the only sure way to avoid [AIDS] and making condoms available only after intensive education.” In other cities, upset parents simply sued. By 1992, Class Action lawsuits had been brought against school districts in New York City, Seattle, and Falmouth, Massachusetts, arguing that condom distribution violated parents’ right to privacy.
Also in July, South Africa’s Constitutional Court orders the government to make the HIV drug nevirapine available to all HIV-positive pregnant women and their newborn children following a legal challenge by the Treatment Action Campaign. 77
The goals of antiviral therapy are to enhance immunity and delay or prevent clinical advancement to symptomatic disease without inducing important side effects or selecting for drug-resistant virus. Currently, the best marker of a drug’s activity is a decrease in the viral load. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]