We’ve come a long way from the days when diagnosis with HIV equaled a death sentence. Today, there are a variety of treatments that, when used in combination can significantly slow down and in some cases stop altogether, the progression of HIV infection.
After infection with HIV, it can take from 3 weeks to 6 months for the virus to show up in testing. Re-testing may be necessary. If the moment an individual was most at risk of infection was within the last 6 months, they can have the test immediately. However, the provider will urge that another test is carried out within a few weeks.
There is no fixed site of but the virus tends to integrate in areas of active transcription, probably because these areas have more open chromatin and more easily accessible DNA. [58, 59] This greatly complicates eradication of the virus by the host, as latent proviral genomes can persist without being detected by the immune system and cannot be targeted by antivirals. See the image below.
Jump up ^ Pritchard, Laura K; Harvey, David J; Bonomelli, Camille; Crispin, Max; Doores, Katie J (2015). “Cell- and Protein-Directed Glycosylation of Native Cleaved HIV-1 Envelope”. Journal of Virology. 89 (17): 8932–44. doi:10.1128/JVI.01190-15. PMC 4524065 . PMID 26085151.
The basis of management is described in the separate article Human Immunideficiency Virus (HIV). There may be defining conditions such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia that will need treatment. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis enormously in terms of duration of survival but premature death is to be expected.
Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): These include medications such as zidovudine (AZT/Retrovir), didanosine (ddI/Videx), stavudine (d4T/Zerit), lamivudine (3TC/Epivir), abacavir (ABC/Ziagen), emtricitabine (FTC/Emtriva), tenofovir (TDF/Viread), and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF).
The person’s immune system is severely damaged, as indicated by a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm3. A CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in a sample of blood. The CD4 count of a healthy person ranges from 500 to 1,600 cells/mm3.
HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission). There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood. It is possible to be co-infected by more than one strain of HIV—a condition known as HIV superinfection.
Despite significant efforts, there is no effective vaccine against HIV. The only way to prevent infection by the virus is to avoid behaviors that put one at risk, such as sharing needles or having unprotected sex. Unprotected sex means sex without a barrier such as a condom. Because condoms break, even they are not perfect protection. Many people infected with HIV don’t have any symptoms and appear healthy. There is no way to know with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected. Here are some prevention strategies:
The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine has said, “Health care workers who are willing to provide reproductive assistance to couples whose offspring are irreducibly at risk for a serious genetic disease should find it ethically acceptable to treat HIV-positive individuals or couples who are willing to take reasonable steps to minimize the risks of transmission.” (20). [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]