HIV infection is commonly diagnosed by blood tests. Testing for HIV is usually a two-step process. First, a screening test is done. If that test is positive, a second test (Western blot) is done to confirm the result.
Jump up ^ Keele BF, Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Bailes E, Takehisa J, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Chen Y, Wain LV, Liegeois F, Loul S, Ngole EM, Bienvenue Y, Delaporte E, Brookfield JF, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Peeters M, Hahn BH (2006). “Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1”. Science. 313 (5786): 523–6. Bibcode:2006Sci…313..523K. doi:10.1126/science.1126531. PMC 2442710 . PMID 16728595.
Bonhoeffer et al. suggested that template switching by reverse transcriptase acts as a repair process to deal with breaks in the single-stranded RNA genome. In addition, Hu and Temin suggested that recombination is an adaptation for repair of damage in the RNA genomes. Strand switching (copy-choice recombination) by reverse transcriptase could generate an undamaged copy of genomic DNA from two damaged single-stranded RNA genome copies. This view of the adaptive benefit of recombination in HIV could explain why each HIV particle contains two complete genomes, rather than one. Furthermore, the view that recombination is a repair process implies that the benefit of repair can occur at each replication cycle, and that this benefit can be realized whether or not the two genomes differ genetically. On the view that recombination in HIV is a repair process, the generation of recombinational variation would be a consequence, but not the cause of, the evolution of template switching.
^ Jump up to: a b Morgan D, Mahe C, Mayanja B, Okongo JM, Lubega R, Whitworth JA (2002). “HIV-1 infection in rural Africa: is there a difference in median time to AIDS and survival compared with that in industrialized countries?”. AIDS. 16 (4): 597–632. doi:10.1097/00002030-200203080-00011. PMID 11873003.
HIV is the virus that’s passed from person to person. Over time, HIV destroys an important kind of the cell in your immune system (called CD4 cells or T cells) that helps protect you from infections. When you don’t have enough of these CD4 cells, your body can’t fight off infections the way it normally can.
AIDS begins with HIV infection. People infected with HIV may have no symptoms for ten years or longer, but they can still transmit the infection to others during this symptom-free period. Meanwhile, their immune system gradually weakens until they develop AIDS.
It has no cure, since decades ago. Use all preventive measures to stay away from it. Because you have family, and dreams to achieve. So please, please, stay away from it. ”A himt to a wise is quite sufficient”
These results provide a dramatic confirmation of experimental work suggesting that CCR5 is the major macrophage and T-lymphocyte co-receptor used by HIV to establish primary infection in vivo, and offers the possibility that primary infection might be blocked by therapeutic antagonists of the CCR5 receptor. Indeed, there is preliminary evidence that low molecular weight inhibitors of this receptor can block infection of macrophages by HIV in vitro. Such low molecular weight inhibitors might be the precursors of useful drugs that could be taken by mouth. Such drugs are very unlikely to provide complete protection against infection, as a very small number of individuals who are homozygous for the nonfunctional variant of CCR5 are infected with HIV. These individuals seem to have suffered from primary infection by CXCR4-using strains of the virus.
Risk of transmission from infected health care practitioners who take appropriate precautions is unclear but appears minimal. In the 1980s, one dentist transmitted HIV to ≥ 6 of his patients by unknown means. However, extensive investigations of patients cared for by other HIV-infected physicians, including surgeons, have uncovered few other cases.
Condoms made of latex provide good protection against HIV (as well as other common sexually transmitted diseases), but they are not foolproof. Oil-based lubricants (such as petroleum jelly) should not be used because they may dissolve latex, reducing the condom’s effectiveness.
Dr. Michael Gottlieb, the lead author of the report and a renowned physician specializing in H.I.V./AIDS, treated Rock Hudson before he died of AIDS complications in 1985 and still practices in Los Angeles. Gottlieb said he is often asked why he didn’t include in that first report the documented case of the gay African-American man, who had both PCP and cytomegalovirus, a virus that attacks the organs of patients with compromised immune systems. He explains that he discovered the case after the report was finalized. “Until recently, I wouldn’t have thought it mattered,” said Gottlieb, who said that he and others on the front line were grappling with an unprecedented and frightening medical mystery and largely working in the dark. “But in retrospect, I think it might’ve made a among gay black men.”
As the disease progresses, both women and men may experience yeast infections on the tongue (thrush), and women may develop severe vaginal yeast infections or pelvic inflammatory disease. Shingles is often seen early on, often before someone is diagnosed with HIV.
HIV enters target cells via a multistep process. First, HIV binds to the CD4 receptor, leading to conformational changes in the viral gp120 envelope protein that enable binding to chemokine coreceptors for HIV. Chemokine receptor engagement triggers conformational changes in the HIV gp41 envelope protein, leading to fusion of HIV and the target cell, resulting in delivery to the viral core.
This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD’s resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.
People known to have HIV infection should go to the hospital any time they develop high fever, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, severe diarrhea, severe chest or abdominal pain, generalized weakness, severe headache, seizures, confusion, or a change in mental status. These may indicate a life-threatening condition for which an urgent evaluation in the hospital’s emergency department is recommended. All infected people should be under the regular care of a physician skilled in the treatment of HIV and AIDS.
Approximately 20% of new diagnoses are in women. In the United States, heterosexual transmission accounts for approximately one-quarter of new diagnoses, with intravenous drug use contributing to the remaining cases in the U.S.
French Syndr d’immunodéficience acquise, Syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise SAI, Syndrome d’immunodéficience humaine acquise, Syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise, non précisée, Syndrome de déficience auto-immune, SYND D’IMMUNODEFICIENCE ACQUISE, Syndrome immunodéficitaire acquis, Syndrome immuno-déficitaire acquis, Syndromes d’immunodéficience acquise, SIDA, Syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise
Jump up ^ Siegfried, N; Muller, M; Deeks, JJ; Volmink, J (April 15, 2009). Siegfried, Nandi, ed. “Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003362. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003362.pub2. PMID 19370585.
Two distinct species of HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) have been identified, and each is composed of multiple subtypes, or clades. All clades of HIV-1 tend to cause similar disease, but the global distribution of the clades differs. This may have implications on any future vaccine, as the B clade, which is predominant in the developed world (where the large pharmaceutical companies are located), is rarely found in the developing countries that are more severely affected by the disease.
Jump up ^ Beck, CR; McKenzie, BC; Hashim, AB; Harris, RC; Zanuzdana, A; Agboado, G; Orton, E; Béchard-Evans, L; Morgan, G; Stevenson, C; Weston, R; Mukaigawara, M; Enstone, J; Augustine, G; Butt, M; Kim, S; Puleston, R; Dabke, G; Howard, R; O’Boyle, J; O’Brien, M; Ahyow, L; Denness, H; Farmer, S; Figureroa, J; Fisher, P; Greaves, F; Haroon, M; Haroon, S; Hird, C; Isba, R; Ishola, DA; Kerac, M; Parish, V; Roberts, J; Rosser, J; Theaker, S; Wallace, D; Wigglesworth, N; Lingard, L; Vinogradova, Y; Horiuchi, H; Peñalver, J; Nguyen-Van-Tam, JS (September 2013). “Influenza vaccination for immunocompromised patients: summary of a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 7 Suppl 2: 72–5. doi:10.1111/irv.12084. PMID 24034488.
Guttmacher Institute. An overview of minors’ consent law. State Policies in Brief. New York (NY): GI; 2013. Available at: http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_OMCL.pdf. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
Jump up ^ Various (January 14, 2010). “Resources and Links, HIV-AIDS Connection”. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2009.
Treatment for immunodeficiency disorders commonly includes antibiotics and immunoglobulin therapy. Other antiviral drugs, amantadine and acyclovir, or a drug called interferon are used for treatment of the viral infections caused by immunodeficiency disorders.
Fungi. The most common fungal disease associated with AIDS is Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). PCP is the immediate cause of death in 15-20% of AIDS patients. It is an important measure of a patient’s prognosis. Other fungal infections include a yeast infection of the mouth (candidiasis or thrush) and cryptococcal meningitis.
There are some people who do not want people to know about condoms or clean needles. They believe that if people know about condoms and have condoms they will have more sex. They believe that if people have clean needles they will use illegal drugs more. Many of these people think this because of their religion. For example, the Catholic church does not want people to have or use condoms. They do not want people to have condoms because they do not think people should have sex unless they are married. They also think that married people should not use condoms, because they believe that if people have sex, they should be prepared to accept a possible pregnancy.
If you’re at a high risk of HIV, talk to your doctor about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP is a combination of two drugs available in pill form. If you take it consistently, you can lower your risk of contracting HIV.
Since AIDS can be transmitted from an infected mother to a fetus during pregnancy or to an infant during the birth process or through breastfeeding, all infants born to HIV-positive mothers are considered a high-risk group. However, prenatal drug treatment of HIV-positive mothers in developed countries has reduced the number of children born infected with HIV. In the developing world, drug treatment is either not available or not affordable. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) worldwide 2.3 million children under age 13 were living with HIV in 2006. The previous year, about 380,000 children died of AIDS and more than half a million children were newly infected. UNICEF estimates that at least 15 million children have lost at least one parent to AIDS.
[Guideline] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of HIV Medicine, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, et al. Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014: Summary for Clinical Providers. 2014. Available at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/26063.
An alternative view holds that unsafe medical practices in Africa after World War II, such as unsterile reuse of single use syringes during mass vaccination, antibiotic and anti-malaria treatment campaigns, were the initial vector that allowed the virus to adapt to humans and spread.
HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, attacks the immune system by destroying white blood cells, which are vital to fighting infection. Once enough of these cells have been destroyed and the person has another “opportunistic” infection like pneumonia or tuberculosis, the diagnosis moves to the final stage of the infection, called AIDS.
Supported by the National Special Science & Technology Program on Major Infectious Diseases (No. 2012ZX10005010-001, No.2013ZX10005001-001); and Henan Province Basic and Advanced Technology Research Project (No.152300410165), and Henan Province Colleges and Universities Key Youth Teachers Scheme (No. 2013GGJS-095)
Treatment with HAART is not without complications. HAART is a collection of different medications, each with its own side effect profile. Some common side effects are nausea, headache, weakness, malaise, and fat accumulation on your back and abdomen (“buffalo hump,” lipodystrophy). When used long-term, these medications may increase the risk of heart attack by affecting fat metabolism.
Without treatment, your CD4 cell count will most likely go down. You might start having signs of HIV disease like fevers, night sweats, diarrhea, or swollen lymph nodes. If you have HIV disease, these problems will last more than a few days, and probably continue for several weeks. [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]