The initial period following the contraction of HIV is called acute HIV, primary HIV or acute retroviral syndrome. Many individuals develop an influenza-like illness or a mononucleosis-like illness 2–4 weeks post exposure while others have no significant symptoms. Symptoms occur in 40–90% of cases and most commonly include fever, large tender lymph nodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, and/or sores of the mouth and genitals. The rash, which occurs in 20–50% of cases, presents itself on the trunk and is maculopapular, classically. Some people also develop opportunistic infections at this stage. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea may occur. Neurological symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or Guillain–Barré syndrome also occurs. The duration of the symptoms varies, but is usually one or two weeks.
Viral load in peripheral blood is used as a surrogate marker of viral replication rate; however, quantitative viral-load assays should not be used as a diagnostic tool. Clinical relevance is as follows:
If treatment fails, drug susceptibility (resistance) assays can determine the susceptibility of the dominant HIV strain to all available drugs. Genotypic and phenotypic assays are available and can help clinicians select a new regimen that should contain at least 2 and preferably 3 drugs to which the HIV strain is more susceptible. The dominant HIV strain in the blood of patients who are taken off antiretroviral therapy may revert over months to years to the wild-type (ie, susceptible) strain because the resistant mutants replicate more slowly and are replaced by the wild type. Thus, if patients have not been treated recently, the full extent of resistance may not be apparent through resistance testing, but when treatment resumes, strains with resistance mutations often reemerge from latency and again replace the wild-type HIV strain.
Dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are large cells with dendritic cytoplasmic extensions. These cells present processed antigens to T lymphocytes in lymph nodes. Epidermal DCs, expressing CD1a and Birbeck granules, are probably among the first immune cells to combat HIV at the mucosal surfaces. These cells transport HIV from the site of infection to lymphoid tissue. The follicular DCs, found in lymphoid tissue, are also key antigen-presenting cells that trap and present antigens on their cell surfaces. In the lymph node follicles, DCs provide signals for the activation of B lymphocytes.
After you start treatment, it’s important to take your medicines exactly as directed by your doctor. When treatment doesn’t work, it is often because HIV has become resistant to the medicine. This can happen if you don’t take your medicines correctly.
From blood transfusions. In some cases, the virus may be transmitted through blood transfusions. American hospitals and blood banks now screen the blood supply for HIV antibodies, so this risk is very small.
T cell infected with HIVFalse-colour scanning electron micrograph of a T cell infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the agent that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).© NIBSC, Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
The history of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dates back to 1981, when gay men with symptoms and signs of a disease that now are considered typical of AIDS were first described in Los Angeles and New York. The men had an unusual type of lung infection (pneumonia) called Pneumocystis carinii (now known as Pneumocystis jiroveci) pneumonia (PCP) and rare skin tumors called Kaposi’s sarcomas. The patients were noted to have a severe reduction in a type of cell in the blood (CD4 cells) that is an important part of the immune system. These cells, often referred to as T cells, help the body fight infections. Shortly thereafter, this disease was recognized throughout the United States, Western Europe, and Africa. In 1983, researchers in the United States and France described the virus that causes AIDS, now known as HIV, belonging to the group of viruses called retroviruses. While HIV infection is required to develop AIDS, the actual definition of AIDS is the development of a low CD4 cell count (<200 cells/mm3) or any one of a long list of complications of HIV infection ranging from a variety of so-called "opportunistic infections," cancers, neurologic symptoms, and wasting syndromes. At least a week, I am asked by one of my HIV-infected patients whether they need to continue to practice safe sex if they are in a monogamous (one mate only) relationship with an HIV-infected partner. Put another way, since both partners already have HIV, what's the harm of unprotected sex? Actually, this is not an easy question to answer fully. In August, Janet and Robert Siliciano wrote about the Brigham men and the Mississippi baby in Science, saying that the cases confirmed that researchers were on the right path in attacking latent infection. The Berlin patient was an even more compelling example. Karl Salzwedel, the chief of Pathogenesis and Basic Research in the Division of aids at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told me that until Timothy Brown “it wasn’t really clear how we would go about getting rid of the last bits of virus that remain in the reservoir.” Brown’s case provided “a proof of concept: it may be possible to eradicate latent H.I.V. from the body. It may be from a very risky and toxic method, but it’s proof of concept nonetheless.” HIV is passed from person to person through bodily fluids such as blood and semen. Once the virus enters your body, it attacks your immune system by destroying CD4 cells, which help keep you from getting sick. The CDC and the College recommend that females aged 13–64 years be tested at least once in their lifetime and annually thereafter based on factors related to risk. Obstetrician–gynecologists should annually review patients’ risk factors for HIV and assess the need for retesting. Repeat HIV testing should be offered at least annually to women who The first few weeks after infection is called the acute infection stage. During this time the virus rapidly reproduces. Your immune system responds by producing HIV antibodies. Many people experience temporary flu-like symptoms during this stage. Even without symptoms, HIV is highly contagious during this time. AIDS Outreach Center (AOC) was founded in 1986 by volunteers to help HIV+ individuals in Fort Worth deal with end of life issues. Today, AOC stands as the largest AIDS service organization in Tarrant County in the fight against HIV. [redirect url='http://penetratearticles.info/bump' sec='7']