Risk of transmitting HIV is highest during vaginal or anal sex when a condom is not used or is used incorrectly. HIV transmission can also occur during oral sex, although transmission is less likely than during vaginal or anal sex.
Few believe there is the kind of energy, leadership, money and political will in the current political climate to fix the situation in the community that has fallen through the cracks for so long. And experts in the field have grown increasingly worried about the new administration’s commitment to fighting the disease. Soon after President Trump’s inauguration, the web page of the Office of National AIDS Policy, the architect of the National H.I.V./AIDS Strategy, was disabled on the White House website. The president’s proposed budget includes a $186 million cut in the C.D.C.’s funding for H.I.V./AIDS prevention, testing and support services. The congressional fight over the repeal of the Affordable Care Act, and the president’s declarations that “Obamacare is dead,” have conjured a disastrous return to even more alarming conditions, like waiting lists for medication. As recently as 2011, the AIDS Drug Assistance Program state-by-state list of people waiting for H.I.V. medication ballooned to over 9,000 people, mostly poor black and brown men in Southern states.
Survival rates have dramatically improved for those individuals using protease inhibitors, but other problems have also arisen. Some persons do not respond to these medications or the side effects from taking the drugs diminish the quality of life. Protease inhibitors, for many people, are intolerable because of nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, kidney stones, and serious drug interactions with other medications. By 2003 researchers had found that serious side effects include increased risk of heart attack, abnormalities in fat distribution, an increased propensity toward diabetes, and abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism.
Most individuals infected with HIV will progress to AIDS, if not treated. However, there is a tiny group of patients who develop AIDS very slowly or never at all. These patients are called non-progressors and many seem to have a genetic difference which prevents the virus from attaching to certain immune receptors.
The main cellular target of HIV is a special class of white blood cells critical to the immune system known as helper T lymphocytes, or helper T cells. Helper T cells are also called CD4+ T cells, because they have on their surfaces a protein called CD4. Helper T cells play a central role in normal immune responses by producing factors that activate virtually all the other immune system cells. Those include B lymphocytes, which produce antibodies needed to fight infection; cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which kill cells infected with a virus; and macrophages and other effector cells, which attack invading pathogens. AIDS results from the loss of most of the helper T cells in the body.
As of early 2009, there was no cure for AIDS and no vaccine to prevent infection. Treatment stresses aggressive combination drug therapy for those patients with access to the expensive medications and who tolerate them adequately. The use of these multi-drug therapies has significantly improved and prolonged the life of HIV/AIDS patients in the United States.
A person can also get HIV by sharing needles. This means using a needle that has not been cleaned after someone else has used it. Some people who take illegal drugs like heroin and cocaine take these drugs by needle. Some of these people share needles. If one person has HIV and he shares his needles, he can give HIV to other people. But if people have clean needles or if they know how to clean needles, they do not get HIV as much.
Jump up ^ Hymes KB, Cheung T, Greene JB, Prose NS, Marcus A, Ballard H, William DC, Laubenstein LJ (September 1981). “Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men-a report of eight cases”. The Lancet. 2 (8247): 598–600. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(81)92740-9. PMID 6116083.
Syndrome is a collection of symptoms, or problems in the body. Because the immune system is damaged, and cannot fight off disease, people with AIDS get a collection of symptoms which is referred to as the “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.”
Jump up ^ “Quick Reference Guide—Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations” (PDF). cdc.gov. New York State Department of Health. June 27, 2014. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 13, 2017.
Spanish Síndrome del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, Enfermedad por VIH, Infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, no especificada, Infección por VIH NEOM, infección por HTLV – III/LAV – RETIRADO -, infección por virus linfotrópico de células T humano, tipo III / virus asociado a linfoadenopatía, [X]enfermedad por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), sin otra especificación, infección por virus linfotrópico de células T humano, tipo III / virus asociado a linfadenopatía, [X]enfermedad por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (trastorno), [X]enfermedad por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), sin otra especificación (trastorno), [X]enfermedad por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, infección por HTLV – III/LAV – RETIRADO – (concepto no activo), [X]enfermedad por HIV, [X]enfermedad por VIH, infección por HIV, infección por VIH, infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (trastorno), infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, Infección por VIH, Infecciones del Virus Tipo III T-Linfotrópico Humano, Infecciones por HTLV-III, Infecciones por VIH, Infecciones por HTLV-III-LAV
AIDS in the Workplace The workplace is a common battleground. Many people with AIDS have lost their jobs, been denied promotions, or been reassigned to work duties that remove them from public contact. During the 1980s, this discrimination was fought through lawsuits based on older laws designed to protect the disabled. Plaintiffs primarily used the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C.A. § 701 et seq.), the earliest law of this type. But the Rehabilitation Act has a limited scope: it applies only to federally funded workplaces and institutions; it says nothing about those that do not receive government money. Thus, for example, the law was helpful to a California public school teacher with AIDS who sued for the right to resume teaching classes (Chalk v. United States District Court, 840 F.2d 701 [9th Cir. 1988]), but it would be of no use to a worker in a private business.
Mandell, Gerald L.; Bennett, John E.; Dolin, Raphael, eds. (2010). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.
HIV is a retrovirus. That is, it stores its genetic information as ribonucleic acid (RNA). Once inside a CD4+ lymphocyte, the virus uses an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make a copy of its RNA, but the copy is made as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). HIV mutates easily at this point because reverse transcriptase is prone to making errors during the conversion of HIV RNA to DNA. These mutations make HIV more difficult to control because the many mutations increase the chance of producing HIV that can resist attacks by the person’s immune system and/or antiretroviral drugs.
HIV is spread through contact with infected blood or fluids such as sexual secretions. Over time, the virus attacks the immune system, focusing on special cells called “CD4 cells” which are important in protecting the body from infections and cancers, and the number of these cells starts to fall. Eventually, the CD4 cells fall to a critical level and/or the immune system is weakened so much that it can no longer fight off certain types of infections and cancers. This advanced stage of HIV infection is called AIDS.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a collection of infections and cancers that people with HIV develop. Human Immuno deficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which takes over the body cells and produces new HIV retrovirus. When someone becomes infected with the HIV virus it begins to attack their immune system. The body’s immune system cells are destroyed, allowing pathogens and cancers which the body might have fought off normally to pose a serious threat to infected individuals due to a significant drop in their resistance levels. This process is not visible and a person who is infected can look and feel perfectly well for many years and they may not know that they are infected. As their immune system weakens they become more vulnerable to illnesses that their immune system would normally have fought off. As time goes by they are likely to become ill more often.
Raffi F, Rachlis A, Stellbrink HJ, Hardy WD, Torti C, Orkin C, et al. Once-daily dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection: 48 week results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SPRING-2 study. Lancet. 2013 Mar 2. 381(9868):735-43. [Medline].
HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase, that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase, and host co-factors. Once integrated, the virus may become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system, for an indiscriminate amount of time. The HIV virus can remain dormant in the human body for up to ten years after primary infection; during this period the virus does not cause symptoms. Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew.
AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals. Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), which can occur during the birth process or during breastfeeding. HIV disease is caused by infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2, which are retroviruses in the Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. See the image below.
Researchers are also trying to switch off a molecule called PD-1, which the body uses to restrain the immune system. Deactivating PD-1 has worked in clinical studies with melanoma and lung-cancer patients, and one patient seems to have been cured of hepatitis C by a single infusion of a PD-1 blocker from Bristol-Myers Squibb.
In 2016 about 36.7 million people were living with HIV and it resulted in 1 million deaths. There were 300,000 fewer new HIV cases in 2016 than in 2015. Most of those infected live in sub-Saharan Africa. Between its discovery and 2014 AIDS has caused an estimated 39 million deaths worldwide. HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading. HIV is believed to have originated in west-central Africa during the late 19th or early 20th century. AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade.
Many opportunistic infections and conditions are used to mark when HIV infection has progressed to AIDS. The general frequency of these infections and conditions varies from rare to common, but all are uncommon or mild in immunocompetent persons. When one of these is unusually severe or frequent in a person infected with HIV and no other causes for immune suppression can be found, AIDS can be diagnosed.  [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]