HIV is a chronic medical condition that can be treated, but not yet cured. There are effective means of preventing complications and delaying, but not preventing, progression to AIDS. At the present time, not all persons infected with HIV have progressed to AIDS, but time has shown that the vast majority do.
Updated by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Internal review and update on 07/24/2016 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
These results provide a dramatic confirmation of experimental work suggesting that CCR5 is the major macrophage and T-lymphocyte co-receptor used by HIV to establish primary infection in vivo, and offers the possibility that primary infection might be blocked by therapeutic antagonists of the CCR5 receptor. Indeed, there is preliminary evidence that low molecular weight inhibitors of this receptor can block infection of macrophages by HIV in vitro. Such low molecular weight inhibitors might be the precursors of useful drugs that could be taken by mouth. Such drugs are very unlikely to provide complete protection against infection, as a very small number of individuals who are homozygous for the nonfunctional variant of CCR5 are infected with HIV. These individuals seem to have suffered from primary infection by CXCR4-using strains of the virus.
The spread of HIV by exposure to infected blood usually results from sharing needles, as in those used for illicit drugs. HIV also can be spread by sharing needles for anabolic steroids to increase muscle, tattooing, and body piercing. To prevent the spread of HIV, as well as other diseases, including hepatitis, needles should never be shared. At the beginning of the HIV epidemic, many individuals acquired HIV infection from blood transfusions or blood products, such as those used for hemophiliacs. Currently, however, because blood is tested for both antibodies to HIV and the actual virus before transfusion, the risk of acquiring HIV from a blood transfusion in the United States is extremely small and is considered insignificant.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it for life.
^ Jump up to: a b c Zheng YH, Lovsin N, Peterlin BM (2005). “Newly identified host factors modulate HIV replication”. Immunology Letters. 97 (2): 225–34. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2004.11.026. PMID 15752562.
The election of Barack Obama brought renewed attention the domestic epidemic and loosened the conservative grip on the federal government’s prevention and research agenda. At the first post-Bush national H.I.V.-prevention conference in 2009, Christopher Bates, then the director of H.I.V./AIDS policy for Health and Human Services and interim executive director of the Presidential Advisory Council on H.I.V./AIDS, kicked off the event in Atlanta by jumping onstage with duct tape on his mouth, ripping it off and shouting, “Finally, I can speak!” On World AIDS Day in 2011, Obama directly addressed the H.I.V. crisis among gay black men in a speech at George Washington University: “When new infections among young black gay men increase by nearly 50 percent in three years, we need to do more to show them that their lives matter.”
^ Jump up to: a b Ng, BE; Butler, LM; Horvath, T; Rutherford, GW (March 16, 2011). Butler, Lisa M, ed. “Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001220. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001220.pub3. PMID 21412869.
A Pakistani technician takes samples in a laboratory alongside a ribbon promoting World Aids Day in Islamabad on November 30, 2013. Researchers in the United States believe there may finally be an HIV vaccine within 10 years.
Seroconversion may take a few weeks, up to several months. Symptoms during this time may include fever, flulike illness, lymphadenopathy, and rash. These manifestations develop in approximately half of all people infected with HIV.
Newer point-of-care tests using blood or saliva (eg, particle agglutination, immunoconcentration, immunochromatography) can be done quickly (in 15 min) and simply, allowing testing in a variety of settings and immediate reporting to patients. Positive results of these rapid tests should be confirmed by standard blood tests (eg, ELISA with or without Western blot) in developed countries and repetition with one or more other rapid tests in developing countries. Negative tests need not be confirmed.
White blood cells are an important part of the immune system. HIV infects and destroys certain white blood cells called CD4+ cells. If too many CD4+ cells are destroyed, the body can no longer defend itself against infection.
In June 2001, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly called for the creation of a “global fund” to support efforts by countries and organisations to combat the spread of HIV through prevention, treatment and care including buying medication.73 [redirect url=’http://penetratearticles.info/bump’ sec=’7′]